Panic disorder higher higher same same lower

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Unformatted text preview: er Social phobia Higher Higher Higher Same Lower physiological and emotional response to a serious threat to one’s well-being. Panic disorder Higher Higher Same Same Lower •anxiety•The central nervous system’s Obsessivecompulsive disorder Same Higher Same Same Lower Source: Hopko et al., 2008; Nazarian & Craske, 2008; Schultz et al., 2008; Kessler et al., 2005; López & Guarnaccia, 2005, 2000; Glazer et al., 2004. ComFun6e_Ch04_C!.indd ComFun6e_Ch04_C!.indd 97 •fear•The central nervous system’s physiological and emotional response to a vague sense of threat or danger. •generalized anxiety disorder•A disorder marked by persistent and excessive feelings of anxiety and worry about numerous events and activities. 12/10/09 11:16:03 AM 98 ://CHAPTER 4 BETWEEN THE LINES Modern Stress and Anxiety Relief: Top Products on the Marketplace Stress balls/squeeze balls << Soothing candles << Nature sound machines << Nature screen savers << Eye and face masks << culture-bound disorder that bears great similarity to generalized anxiety disorder (Lopez & Guarnaccia, 2005, 2000; APA, 2000). People with nervios experience enormous emotional distress, somatic symptoms such as headaches and stomachaches, so-called brain aches marked by poor concentration and nervousness, and symptoms of irritability, tearfulness, and trembling. Although poverty and various societal and cultural pressures may help create a climate in which generalized anxiety disorder is more likely to develop, sociocultural variables are not the only factors at work. After all, most people in poor or dangerous environments do not develop this disorder. Even if sociocultural factors play a broad role, theorists still must explain why some people develop the disorder and others do not. The psychodynamic, humanistic-existential, cognitive, and biological schools of thought have all tried to explain why and have offered corresponding treatments. Wind chimes << Wind spinners << Natural alarm clocks << Worry beads << Aromatherapy << Herbal supplements << Massage << Exercise << Yoga/meditation << BETWEEN THE LINES Insecurity, Adult Style Children may cling to blankets or cuddly toys to feel more secure. Adults, too, may hug a beloved object in order to relax: 1 in 5 adult women and 1 in 20 men admit to sleeping with a stuffed animal on a regular basis (Kanner, 1995). << ComFun6e_Ch04_C!.indd 98 The Psychodynamic Perspective Sigmund Freud (1933, 1917) believed that all children experience some degree of anxiety as part of growing up and that all use ego defense mechanisms to help control such anxiety (see page 38). Children experience realistic anxiety when they face actual danger; neurotic anxiety when they are repeatedly prevented, by parents or by circumstances, from expressing their id impulses; and moral anxiety when they are punished or threatened for expressing their id impulses. According to Freud, some children experience particularly high levels of such anxiety, or their defense mechanisms are particularly inadequate, and these individuals may de...
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