Final Exam Essay Answers - Non-Cumulative: Number 2: How...

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Non-Cumulative: Number 2: How does a “global” context help to explain Columbus’ voyages of exploration? - Reconquista – desire for conversion - Spice trade – desire for direct route to India To what extent were his mental world and aspirations formed by influences and information from outside of Europe and to what extent was he expressing European cultural attitudes and achievements? - Ptolemy’s Geography – map told him what he would find, was trying to find direct route to India - Pliny’s Natural History – expecting to find weird things, such as cannibals and people with “dogs’ heads”, whose “speech is a bark” - Travels of Marco Polo – Columbus expected to find lots of gold - Letter from Christopher Columbus – doesn’t find cannibals; seems to look down on inhabitants, calls them cowards, “women work harder than men”; astonished at lack of private property; surprised by natural environment and social structure/behavior Was Columbus a “Renaissance man”? - No. Columbus did not seem to excel in multiple fields, like a true Renaissance man, such as Leonardo Da Vinci or Benjamin Franklin did. Nor did he seem to express a great deal of interest in classical ideals. Number 3: How did state and religious authorities attempt to regulate behavior and belief in daily life during the Protestant and Catholic Reformations? - Extract from a Sermon by Luther Pastor Sebastian Froschel – One way to regulate behavior is through sermons. This sermon is an excellent example because it stresses how all men are bound to obey the Ten Commandments. Even goes out to say that people need to obey the governments. - Disciplinary Cases from Scottish Kirk Sessions – Another method for regulating behavior is to actually try people for crimes against the church. In this particular instance, the church was apparently trying to cut down on sexuality, as there are many more sexuality case than any other case. - Stress the importance of attendance – Visitation Report from Nassau – Wiesbaden notes the extreme lack of attendance in catechisms. Assuming this typically a universal problem, it is interesting to note that after this was noted, attendance was probably stressed more in church, as the attendance numbers grew, according to the Improvements in Catechism Recitation Among Persons Questioned by the Inquisition Number 4: What were the basic religious and doctrinal differences between Protestants and Catholics in the Reformation? - Transubstantiation for Catholics, Consubstantiation for Protestants - Martin Guerre – No divorce for Catholics, Divorce for Protestants
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- Indulgences in Catholic church, no indulgences in Protestant church - Priests as intercessors between people and God in Catholicism, Protestants believe in “priesthood of all believers” What aspects of Catholicism did Protestant theologians challenge, what new ideas did they propose and how did Catholics respond? -
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course HIST 141 taught by Professor Crowston during the Spring '06 term at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.

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Final Exam Essay Answers - Non-Cumulative: Number 2: How...

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