5 - LPK Holt HIUS 309 February 5, 2008 Civil War and the...

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LPK Holt HIUS 309 February 5, 2008 Civil War and the Nationalization of Power: Many believe the Confederacy died from states’ rights obstructionism The Confederate draft produced about 25% of the army; the Union’s produced about 6% About 80% of the white males in the Confederacy served in the army; about 50% served in the Union army – greater efficiency at raising man power in the Confederacy however the North’s resources were so much greater, they ended up having more men total serve in the war The aspects (military) of the war had no long-term impact – there was no draft for the Spanish-American War Some argue that the Civil War was a watershed in American history because it forever expanded the government’s role in economic life o Emancipation of the slaves o Death of federalism – switch to nationalism o Passing of “sweeping” legislation 1862 – Congress passed the Homestead Act – awarded any head of family 160 acres for free if they lived and tended to the land for 5 years 1862 – Morrill Land Grant Act – gave to each state of the Union, 30,000 acres of land for each senator and representative the state had; to be used to earn revenue to establish state universities (agricultural and mechanical) – had an enormous impact on higher education Union measures to raise revenue were innovative and had a dramatic impact on individual American citizens – before the war all federal revenues were derived from federal tariff duties and land sales; no direct tax In 1861, Congress passed the first income tax law in the history of the US and a direct tax as well; anyone who made less than $60,000 didn’t have to pay taxes – established for the first time an internal revenue source (IRS) July 1862 – Congress passed massive excise taxes on virtually everything made and owned; for a simple carriage: the cloth, the leather, the wood, the metal, the manufacturer, the dealer, the purchaser all were taxed – this had never happened before Tariffs passed in 1862 and 1864 were extremely high and were meant to protect against foreign competition At the end of the war, tariff duties were twice as high and would remain
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5 - LPK Holt HIUS 309 February 5, 2008 Civil War and the...

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