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sociologyunit4outline - 12 HEALTH AND POPULATION...

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12. HEALTH AND POPULATION OBJECTIVES : (1) Define demography and describe population change and the factors affecting population change. (2) Define population policy and describe the policies of population change. (3) Describe the major theories of population change. 1. Population change and the factors -- Demography - Elements of population (1) Size (2) Distribution (3) Composition - Processes of population (1) Fertility (2) Mortality (3) Migration -- Sources of data (1) Census (2) Vital statistics (3) Sample survey -- Population change - GR = (CBR-CDR)+(MiR-MoR)/10 - Measure example: Crude birth rate Number of births/Total population x 1,000 -- World population: Size, distribution and composition -- Population Growth (a) Doubling time (b) Billion-fold increase - Causes of population growth (1) Death rate has declined significantly (2) Birth rate has not shown a similar decline - ZPG: Zero population growth (European countries) -- Factors affecting population change (1) Mortality (a) Improved agriculture (b) Development of industry (c) Medical advances - Epidemiology: The origin and spread of diseases (Poverty) (2) Fertility (a) Demographic (b) Cultural (c) Social
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(d) Political (e) Religious (f) Economic (h) Psychological (3) Migration, Everett Lee (a) Push: Unfavorable factors (b) Pull: Favorable factors (c) Channels: Means to migrate -- Population distribution (a) More-developed countries (MDC) (b) Less-developed countries (LDC) -- Population characteristics - Age and sex pyramid - Types of pyramids (a) Conical (LDC) (b) Beehive (MDC) 2.
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