The most famous example of that was franklin

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Unformatted text preview: how it can possibly operate without political gridlock. By popular media’s account, a three-way Western-style showdown between Speaker Boehner, Leader Reid, and President Obama is all but imminent. In thewords of William A. Galston, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institute, The polarization of American politics will make a tough job even harder. The two parties disagree on economic fundamentals, and because each now enjoys a share of real power, nothing will get done unless they manage to agree…Flash-points will occur early and often in 2012…Many analysts are predicting two years of gridlock, and it’s easy to see why. Indeed, as the 112th Congress kicks off, our President and the Democratic Party he leads is headed down a grim road for passing any major legislation on its short-term and long-term policy agenda. The pause in harsh rhetoric and fierce contention borne of the tragic, horrifying events of Tucson is unfortunately going to be short-lived, by many accounts. Even as legislators’ efforts for unification might bring together the parties for symbolic purposes such as the State of the Union address, House and Senate Republicans are largely seeking to exercise their mandate to check the perceived Democratic excesses of the last two years. The President of Change is going to have to grapple with the ways of the past, if the House GOP intends to keep its promise to implement the Pledge to America. Inherent in all of these impending political firefights is the realization that President Obama’s intelligent utilization of his quickly diminishing political capital is going to play a larger role than ever in our national political process over the next two years, and may very well determine the outcome of the 2012 presidential race. Policymaking requires horse trading – President must use political capital to secure agenda Ryan, Political scientist & University of the West Indies University Director of the Institute of Social and Economic Studies, 9 (Selwyn, 1-18-9, Trinidad Express, "Obama and political capital," Trinidad Express,, accessed 7-15-10) One of the "realities" that Obama has to face is that American politics is not a winner-take-all system. It is pluralistic vertically and horizontally, and getting anything done politically, even when the President and the Congress are controlled by the same party, requires groups to negotiate, bargain and engage in serious horse trading. No one takes orders from the President who can only use moral or political suasion and promises of future support for policies or projects. The system was in fact deliberately engineered to prevent overbearing majorities from conspiring to tyrannise minorities. The system is not only institutionally diverse and plural, but socially and geographically so. As James Madison put it in Federalist No 10, one of the foundation documents of republicanism in America, basic institutions check other basic institutions, classes and interests check other classes and interests, and regions do the same. All are grounded in their own power bases which they use to fend...
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This note was uploaded on 01/14/2013 for the course POL 090 taught by Professor Framer during the Spring '13 term at Shimer.

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