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MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE Q1 Skin, Hair, Nails Skin Changes during pregnancy & life span: -Infants & children: -Mongolian Spots: gray,blue or purple spots in sacral buttocks area, fade by age 3 -Milia and “stork bites” -newborn skin is covered with vernix caseosa-Pregnancy: -skin pigmentation increase -melasma -hormonal changes may cause oil & sweet glands to become hyperactive -worsening acne in 1st trimester -hair may fall out during months 1-5 -Older Adult:-skin elasticity decrease with aging -sebum production decreases & causes dryness -melanin decreases causing gray hair -increased sensitivity to sunlight -nails tend to become thicker & more brittleNail changes & diseases process they represent: -Clubbing:nail angle greater than 160 degrees- chronic hypoxia -Paronychia: an infection of the skin adjacent to the nail; caused by bacteria or fungi -Splinter Hemorrhage: reddish-brown spots in the nail; result of trauma or endocarditis -Koilonychia: concavity & thinning of the nails; spoon nails; iron deficiency -Onycholysis: fungal nail infection; causes nails to thicken&lift off nail bed, yellow, white. -Beau’s Lines:due to trauma or illness; linear depression develops at the base &moves distally as the nail grows
Skin Disorders: Macule: flat, non-palpable change in the skin color; smaller than 1cm Patch:are larger than 1cm and may have irregular border Papule:elevated, solid palpable masses; smaller than 0.5cm Plaque:groups of papules that form lesions larger than 0.5cm Tumor:irregular borders and are larger than 2cm Bulla:are larger than 0.5cm Pustule:elevated, pus-filled vesicle or bulla Wheal:elevated, often reddish area with irregular border caused by diffuse fluid in tissues Cyst:elevated, encapsulated, fluid-filled or semisolid mass Atrophy:translucent, dry, paper-like sometimes wrinkled skin surface Erosion:wearing away of the superficial epidermis causing a moist, shallow depression Crust:dry blood, serum, or pus on the skin surface from burst vesicles Fissure:linear crack with sharp edges Keloid:from ear piercing or surgery Lichenification: rough, thickened, hardened area of epidermis resulting from chronic irritation such as scratching or rubbing Scales: shedding flakes of greasy keratinized skin tissue.