Anthropology-3

Anthropology-3 - `s Anthropology Chapter 3 Cellular...

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‘s Anthropology Chapter 3 Cellular replication -Cell division – a cell can be segmented into a nucleus region (center) and a cytoplasm region -chromosomes are in the nucleus -Interphase – chromosomes replicate with each other -each chromosome duplicates itself a) Genes are active b) Chromosomes replicate -Chromatids – identical strands of DNA -Centromere – constricted portion of a chromosome, temporarily holding together two chromatids -Mitosis 1) Prophase – the first stage of mitosis 2) Metaphase – chromosomes align independently from one another 3) Anaphase – the centromeres divide and the two chromatids are physically released 4) Telaphase – the cell divides -results of mitosis 1) Two cells are produced; each cell has the diploid of chromosome number -Diploid – full complement of chromosomes 2) Both daughter cells are genetically identical to the parent cell and to each other
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-Ultimate function of mitosis: production of cells genetically identical to the parent cell -somatic (non-sex) cells undergo mitosis -functions of mitosis: a) Results in the growth of an organism b) The maintenance of tissues c) Production of cells that are genetically identical to the parent cells -Homologous chromosomes – chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes Meiosis 1) Sex cells are produced by meiosis 2) Function of meiosis is the production of sex cells for the transmission of genetic material from the parent to the offspring -Prophase I – the first stage of meiosis -homologous chromosomes, synapse, and these chromosomes undergo crossing- over (recombination ) -Synapse – pairing of homologous chromosomes -Crossing-over – physical exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes -Metaphase I -chromosomes align in the middle of the cell -homologous chromosomes remain paired with one another -non-homologous chromosomes align independently of one another -Anaphase I -centromeres do not divide -Telaphase I -cells divide -Prophase II -Metaphase II -chromosomes align independently from one another in the center of the cell -spindle fibers form and attach to the centromeres -Anaphase II -centromeres divide and the once-paired chromosomes migrate toward opposite sides of the cell -Telaphase II -each cell divides into four daughter cells -Results of meiosis: a) Four cells are produced, each with the haploid chromosome number -Haploid – one half of the chromosomes b) Each daughter cell is genetically different from the parent cell -The ultimate function of meiosis: the production of genetically variable sex cells Comparison of mitosis and meiosis: -Mitosis – the number of daughter cells produced is 2 -genetic structure of a daughter cell relative to a parent cell and to other daughter cells is identical
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-chromosome number in daughter cell is the diploid -Functional result – exact duplication -Prophase - ------- -Metaphase – chromosomes align independently from one another -Anaphase – centromeres divide Meiosis – 4 daughter cells are produced; -genetic structure of daughter cells is different from the parent cells
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course ANTH ANTH 1003 taught by Professor Demovic during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Anthropology-3 - `s Anthropology Chapter 3 Cellular...

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