Psychology 2003 major major concepts spring 08

Psychology 2003 major major concepts spring 08 - Major...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Major Major Concepts: Spring 2008 1. Structuralism, Behaviorism, and Psychodynamic Approaches to Psychology I want you to know about the history of Psychology. That Wundt introduced the scientific method to the field, distinguishing Psychology from its Philosophy roots. That John Watson called for the rejection of mentalistic constructs and wanted Psychology to be the science of BEHAVIOR. That Freud proposed the psychodynamic approach that suggested unconscious motivations and intrapsychic conflicts among the id, ego, and superego determine an individual’s personality. 2. Correlations I want you to know that correlational studies investigate whether two variables covary or somehow “go together” – as the value of one variable changes, does the value of some other variable systematically change? Correlations allow for predictions, but the lack of control means that “correlation does not imply causation.” Correlational techniques are also used to assess the psychometric properties (reliability, validity) of psychological tests. 3. The Experimental Method I want you to know that the key feature of experiments is CONTROL. That an experimenter will hold everything constant except for the factor (or factors) that are being investigated. Because of the control, only experiments allow us to determine cause-effect relationships. 4. Independent variable and Dependent variable I want you to know that the independent variable is manipulated by the experimenter. In most experiments, there is an experimental group that receives some special treatment that the experimenter is trying to study; this group is sometimes called the treatment group. For comparison purposes, there is a control group that is does not receive any special treatment. The variable (or factor) that differs between the experimental group and the control group is the independent variable, it is variable manipulated by the experimenter, and it is the variable that the experimenter expects to affect behavior. To measure changes in behavior, the experimenter uses the dependent variable. In terms of cause-effect relationships, you can think of the independent variable (or IV) as the cause, and differences in the dependent variable (DV) between the treatment group and the control group as being the effect . 5. Parts of a Neuron I want you to know the major parts of the neuron: dendrite, cell body ( or soma), axon, and axon terminal. That two neurons “communicate” with each other at the synapse - where the membrane of the axon terminal of one neuron comes close to but does not touch the membrane of the dendrite of the next neuron in the chain. The space between the two membranes is called the synaptic cleft. 6.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 8

Psychology 2003 major major concepts spring 08 - Major...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online