BIO 5A (RAO-1)

BIO 5A (RAO-1) - Office: 3264A Webber Hall Office hours:...

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Office: 3264A Webber Hall Office hours: 3PM to 4PM Thursday Email: arao@ucr.edu
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Chapters covered by RAO (Campbell’s 7th Edition) Chapter 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance DNA is the genetic material Many proteins work together in DNA replication and repair DNA replication Proof reading Chapter 17: From gene to protein Transcription Translation Gene expression Chapter 18: Genetics of viruses and bacteria Discovery of viruses General features of viruses Diseases of viruses
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What's a genome? And why is it important? Gene (cistron) is a segment of DNA involved in producing a polypeptide chain. Hence genes carry information for making all the proteins required by all organisms. These proteins determine, among other things, how the organism looks, how well its body metabolizes food or fights infection, and sometimes even how it behaves. DNA is made up of four similar chemicals (called bases and abbreviated A, T, C, and G) that are repeated millions or billions of times throughout a genome. The particular order of As, Ts, Cs, and Gs is extremely important. The order underlies all of life's diversity, even dictating whether an organism is human or another species such as yeast, rice, or fruit fly, all of which have their own genomes and are themselves the focus of genome projects. Because all organisms are related through similarities in DNA sequences, insights gained from nonhuman genomes often lead to new knowledge about human biology. A genome is all the DNA in an organism, including its genes . Human DNA contains 3 billion chemical base pairs encoding 20,000- 25,000 genes.
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Some historical milestones in biology
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1952: Martha Chase and Alfred Hershey use radioactive isotopes of 35S and 32P and a common kitchen appliance to separate the protein coats of viruses from their DNA to demonstrate that DNA is the genetic substance that transmits inherited characteristics from one generation to the next. Hershey wins the 1969 Nobel Prize. Steps on the Road to Modern Biology 1967: Cracking the the genetic code. Har Khorana, Robert Holley, and Marshall Nirenberg decipher the mechanism that enables DNA to be translated into proteins. Nirenberg, Khorana, and Holley share the 1968 Nobel Prize. 1968: Stanley Cohen , studying bacterial disease at Stanford, determines that bacteria carry genes for antibiotic resistance on plasmids, extrachromosomal circles of DNA. Cohen learns how to purify plasmids and reinsert them into other bacterial cells, transferring antibiotic resistance in the process. 1970: Restriction enzymes discovered. UCSF scientist Herb Boyer, working with bacteriophages, discovers that certain bacteria preferentially fight off (or "restrict") certain phages by producing enzymes that can chop up the phage's DNA, leaving "sticky ends" on the cut strands. Boyer isolates the "Big Daddy" of restriction enzymes, EcoR1. In the ensuing years, hundreds of different restriction endonucleases are found that cleave DNA at specific sites. Earlier investigators studying restriction
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIO 5A taught by Professor Zhu/cardullo/rao during the Winter '08 term at UC Riverside.

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BIO 5A (RAO-1) - Office: 3264A Webber Hall Office hours:...

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