Midterm Review Responses
ARISTOTLE AND THE LANGUAGE OF ETHICS
Explain the meaning of the statement that: All things aim at the good”. Is there some
deep connection between Being and Value? (Well Being; Being Well; Ought-to Be)
(Function, Essence, Becoming what we ought)
Ethics is the science of discovering the good. The purpose of our life, or telos, is to
find the ultimate good. Ethics is done for its own sake just as actions are done for
ends, which are achieving your telos, the ultimate good. If you carry out your actions,
in the double bracket, it will aim at good. Everything we do, for the sake of the
action, aims at the good. Everything has its own purpose, or telos, and when you
carry this out it will lead to virtue. All parts of being /reality pt towards good. “ought”
ethics is the art of being. Book 1: “every action and choice seem to aim at some good;
the good, therefore, has been well defined as that at which all things aim.
What is the relation between Virtue, Knowledge, and Happiness?
Aristotle- must practice knowledge, walk the walk. Knowledge- info, you are the
knowledge. Communion with reality.
Aristotle says that virtue of wisdom is the best virtue and that reflection on the virtue
of wisdom is the good for humans. In Aristotle, happiness is the ultimate goal. Instead
of aiming for happiness, Aristotle says that our actions aim at “the good….that at
which all things aim.” If a person acts virtuous, they will find happiness. Knowledge
and Virtue are what make us happy, without theses there would not be happiness. In
order to make virtuous choices we need knowledge to deliberate and make decisions.
We must have wisdom and virtue in order to gain the ultimate goal, and the wisdom
must be virtuous as well as the happiness we receive from our actions.
Book 1 Chapter 7: “the good for man is an activity of the soul in accordance with
virtue, or if there are more kinds of virtue than one, in accordance with the best and
most perfect kind.
What is “deliberation” in Aristotle’s ethics? What do we deliberate about? What is
the link between choice and deliberation? What is freedom? Free agency? Free will?
Deliberation is the method of using rational intelligence to make a decision. We
deliberate about “things that are in our power and can be realized in action…these are
the only things that remain to be considered,” (60). We only deliberate about things
that matter and are possible (not the weather, because can’t control). Decision from
deliberation (process) enables choice (result). Free agency-sense of empowerment.
Free will-faculty you have volition. Only responsible for decisions done under free
will. You have free will if you can deliberate on choices. free will-faculty of choice.
Reason theoretical: dealing with facts. Practical: toward something virtuous, dealing