Study Guide Ch 9.docx - Bio 120- Anatomy & Physiology I...

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Bio 120- Anatomy & Physiology IChapter 9MusclesFunctions:1.Produce movement: responsible for all locomotion and manipulation2.Maintain posture and body position3.Stabilize joints4.Generate heat as they contractTypes of Muscles:1. Skeletala.Skeletal muscle tissue is packaged into skeletal muscles:attached to bones and skinb.Skeletal muscle fibers are longest of all muscle and havestriations (stripes)c.Also called voluntary muscle: consciously controlledd.Contract rapidly; tire easily; powerful2. Cardiaca.Cardiac muscle tissue found in hearti.Makes up bulk of heart wallsb. Striatedc.Involuntary: not controlled consciouslyi.Contracts at steady rate due to heart’s own pacemaker,but nervous system can increase rate3. Smootha.Smooth muscle tissue: found in walls of hollow organsi.Examples: stomach, urinary bladder, and airwaysb.Not striatedc.Involuntary: not controlled consciouslyCharacteristics of Muscle TissueExcitability: ability to receive and respond to stimuliContractility: ability to shorten forcibly when stimulatedExtensibility: ability to be stretchedElasticity: ability to recoil to resting lengthSKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY:Nerve and Blood Supply1
Bio 120- Anatomy & Physiology ISkeletal muscle organ features: nerve and blood supply, connectivetissue sheaths, and attachmentsEach muscle receives a nerve, artery, and veinsContracting muscle fibers require huge amounts of oxygen, nutrientsand waste removalConnective Tissue SheathsFrom external to internal:oEpimysium: dense irregular connective tissue surroundingentire muscle; may blend with fasciaoPerimysium: fibrous connective tissue surroundingfascicles (groups of muscle fibers)oEndomysium: fine areolar connective tissue surroundingeach muscle fiberAttachmentsMuscles span joints and attach to bonesMuscles attach to bone in at least two placesoInsertion: attachment to movable boneoOrigin: attachment to immovable or less movable boneAttachments can be direct or indirectoDirect (fleshy): epimysium fused to periosteum of bone orperichondrium of cartilageoIndirect: connective tissue wrappings extend beyondmuscle as ropelike tendon or sheetlike aponeurosisMUSCLE FIBER MICROANATOMY & SLIDING FILAMENT MODELSarcolemma- muscle fiber plasma membraneSarcoplasm- muscle fiber cytoplasmMyofibrilsodensely packed, rodlike elementsoSingle muscle fiber can contain 1000soAccounts for ~80% of muscle cell volumeStriations2

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