Adolescence Lecture - Chapters 14-16

Adolescence Lecture - Chapters 14-16 - Chapters 14-16...

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1 Developmental Psychology – Spring 2008 Andrea C. Reed Chapters 14-16 Adolescence  
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2 Puberty Fact Sheet Puberty = all the hormonal and physical  changes that make us sexually mature.   Takes on average five years and today is typically an early teenage change. In traditional cultures was often marked by a puberty rite or a coming of age ritual, signaling the beginning of adult roles (e.g. marriage). Today, as the gap between puberty and full adulthood takes a decade or two, our culture tries to minimize this change. Has been declining over time and so is related to the increase in teenage pregnancy.
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3 The Hormonal Programmers  Two systems: Androgens produced by the adrenal glands  Promote growth of hair, skin changes, program sexual desire. System begins to secrete its hormones in middle childhood. ***HPG Axis*** Hypothalamic hormone causes the pituitary to secrete its hormones, which in turn, triggers the gonads to begin secreting their hormones, which produce the body changes. Main system programming the body changes. Gonads Testes » Produce mainly testosterone Ovaries » Produce estrogen Testosterone and estrogen production occurs in  both sexes  and, for  both girls and boys, testosterone and the adrenal androgens program  sexual desire and skin and hair changes
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4 Classifying the Physical Changes Primary Sexual Characteristics Changes directly involved in reproduction Growth of uterus, maturation of the ovaries, onset of menarche . Growth of penis, of testes, onset of spermache Secondary Sexual Characteristics Physical changes not related to reproduction Hair growth, voice changes, acne, breast development etc. Growth Spurt Dramatic increase in weight and height Hands, feet, and legs grow first– opposite of the cephalocaudal sequence Boys become much stronger and much taller than girls!
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5 What Starts Puberty?  It’s set off by body levels of  leptin (a fat). Some forces programming  the triggering hypothalamic hormone are : Genetics We tend to reach puberty at relatively similar ages as our parents. Identical twins tend to reach puberty at similar ages Weight during middle childhood Children with a high BMI (body mass index) tend to reach puberty at an earlier age. Nutrition throughout childhood In developing world countries where children lack adequate nutrition, boys and girls reach puberty later . Stress Some research suggests that family stress –or growing up in a mother headed family- accelerates the puberty timetable too.
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6 Other Interesting Puberty Facts The timing difference between boys and girls  looks like  two years,  but their timetables are actually not that different because the  visible signs of puberty (growth spurt and breast development)  occur at the beginning of the sequence for females. (First to grow 
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Adolescence Lecture - Chapters 14-16 - Chapters 14-16...

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