Exam 3 - Study Guide

Exam 3 - Study Guide - 1. What are pain and nociception?...

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What are pain and nociception? What is different between pain and nociception? a. Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with an actual or potential tissue damage. Nociception is the sum of neurochemical events involved in the identification of and reaction to a noxious stimulus (tissue threatening or tissue damaging) 2. What are the four processes involved in nociception and pain processing? i. An increase in biochemicals, an increase in temperature, and an increase in pressure (all these are stimuli) ii. Mechano receptors respond to an increase in pressure. Metabo receptors are polymodal because they respond to an increase in pressure, temperature, and biochemicals. iii. 3. What is the difference between Type III and Type IV nociceptors? a. Type III nociceptors i. Linked with mechano receptors and have milonations (faster signal) b. Type IV nociceptors i. Linked with metabo receptors and don’t have milonation (slower signal) c. Both type III and type IV bring the signal into the spinal chord in the spinal thalamic tract (spine to thalamus) 4. What are the primary areas of the brain that are activated during pain? a. The Thalamus then sends the signal to 2 parts of the brain: i. ii. Anterior cingular cortex – emotion/bothersome aspect of pain b. 5. What are pain threshold, pain tolerance, pain intensity, and pain affect? a. Pain threshold is the minimum stimulus before someone says that something hurts. Pain tolerance is the maximum stimulus that someone can withstand. Pain intensity is something that is measured by a self-report of an individual. Pain affect is a self-report as well and is usually illustrated on a manican. 6. What are the major findings summarized in class regarding pain and exercise? What is the strongest experimental evidence that pain influences endurance performance? a. There is naturally occurring muscle pain during exercise in injury-free individuals. One’s pain threshold increases during exercise in a dose- dependent manner. Hypalgesia occurs during and after exercise. b.
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Exam 3 - Study Guide - 1. What are pain and nociception?...

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