CHEM EXAM 2 Notecard

CHEM EXAM 2 Notecard - Electromagnetic radiation o...

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Electromagnetic radiation o Frequency – ν (nu) – number of peaks that pass a given point per time o Wavelength – λ – distance from one wave to the next Parts of a wave o Nodes – where the wave crosses an axis o Trough – low point in wave 1/ λ = R((1/m 2 ) – (1/n 2 ) o R is radius o M is shell to shell o N is nucleus to nucleus Max Planck – proposed that energy was quantized o Amount depends on frequency E = h ν = hc/ λ y λ = R((1/m 2 ) – (1/n 2 )) o m – shell that you are transitioning to o n – shell that you are transitioning from Atomic Spectra – result from excited atoms that emit light E = hν = hc/λ o h = 6.626x10 -34 J•s Einstein – proposed that light behaves like particles called photons Ψ is a wave function that describes where electrons are o Each wave function is defined by some variables Principal Quantum Number (n) – defines the size of the electron cloud and therefore the energy of the orbital (n=1, 2, 3, 4….) Angular Momentum QN (ℓ) – defines the shape of the orbital (ℓ = 0, 1, 2, 3,…) ℓ = 0 spherical, s-orbital ℓ = 1 dumb-bell, p-orbital ℓ = 2 4-leaf clovers, a donut with a dumbbell, d-orbital Magnetic Quantum Number (m ) – defines the spatial orientation of the orbital Spin Quantum number (m s ) – defines the spin of the electron as +½ or –½ Pauli Exclusion Principle – no electrons in an atom can have the same quantum numbers, no two electrons can occupy the same orbital with the same spin Rules of Aufbau Principle o Lower n orbitals fill first o Each orbital holds two e - ; each with different spin o Half-fill degenerate orbitals before pairing e - o Example: Boron: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 s↑↓ s↑↓ p↑_ __ __ Example: Carbon: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 s↑↓ s↑↓ p↑_ ↑_ __ Example: Nitrogen: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 s↑↓ s↑↓ p↑_ ↑_ ↑_ Example: Sodium: [Ne]3s 1 o Wave Function Principal Quantum number (n) – size Angular momentum QN (ℓ) – shape (s, p, d, f) Magnetic quantum number (m ) – orientation Spin quantum number (m s ) – spin up or down o Orbital shapes S-orbital
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CHEM EXAM 2 Notecard - Electromagnetic radiation o...

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