Final Exam Review Shee

Final Exam Review Shee - Metals thermally and electrically...

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Metals – thermally and electrically conductive, strong hard, ductile, malleable Ceramics – hard, brittle, insulators, resist hash environments Polymers – cheap, flexible, low density, typically insulators Atom – smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties Atomic number – number of protons Mole – quantity of a substance corresponding to 6.022x10 23 atoms/molecules Atomic weight – weighted average of an atom’s naturally-occurring isotopes Ion – an atom that has lost or gained one or more electrons so that it is not neutral Ground state – lowest energy state of an atom Electronegativity – how easily atoms attract electrons to form negative ions Bohr atomic model – discrete orbitals Wave mechanical model – electrons travel in clouds of uncertainty Quantum numbers o Principal – energy level labeled by n o Angular momentum – determines s, p, d, or f Force vs. interatomic spacing Energy vs. interatomic spacing Bonding force vs. bonding energy – F = dE/dr Thermal expansion – deeper potential well has a lower thermal expansion Ionic bond – electrons are given or taken, metal-nonmetal combination Covalent bond – shared electrons, bonds are directional and effect only a single molecule Metallic bond – found in metals, electrons flow around positive core %Ionic Character - {1-exp[-0.25(x A – x B ) 2 ]} x 100 Secondary bonding o Van der Woals – weak interactions between dipoles o Fluctuating induced Dipole – vibrations cause charge shift to one side (weakest bond) o Polar Induced dipole – interaction of charged regions due to electronegativity difference o Hydrogen bonding – hydrogen becomes attracted to a molecule even if it is in one FCC Structure – atoms on corners and faces, 4 total atoms, a = 2Rsqrt(2), Coord# = 12, APF = .74
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Final Exam Review Shee - Metals thermally and electrically...

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