Chapter_14_Outline - Mr Dunbar AP European History Chapter...

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Mr. DunbarAP European HistoryChapter 14: New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries OutlineChapter Overview:Due to science and the discovery of a “heliocentric” universe, there was a transformation of humankind’s perception of its place in the larger scheme of things.This new worldview led to new thinking about moral and religious matters, as well as scientific theory.New ideas and methods of science challenged modes of thought associated with late medieval times like scholasticism and philosophy.The Protestant Reformation and the discovery of the Americas presented new uncertainties that caused Europeans to question their souls, geographical knowledge, and physical nature.Section One: The Scientific RevolutionSection OverviewoThe process that resulted in the view of the universe is typically called the Scientific Revolution.oThe Scientific Revolution was not rapid as it took the brilliant minds of dislocated scientists in laboratories in Poland, Italy, Denmark, Bohemia, France and Great Britain, as well as many local artisans they hired to help created instruments for study to produce this new science.oDuring the fifteenth century, individuals interested in natural philosophy worked at universities, in home workshops, or the courts of royal families; it wasn’t until the late seventeenth century that formal societies and academies devoted to science were founded.oScience became the greatest cultural authority in the western world.Nicolaus Copernicus Rejects an Earth-Centered UniverseoBiographical informationPolish priest and scientisteducated at the University of Krakowwrote On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheresin 1543Commissioned to find astronomical justification so that the papacy could change the calendar so that it could correctly calculate the date of Easter, Copernicus’s work provided an intellectual springboard from which scientist could posit questions about Earth’s position in the universe.oPtolemaic SystemPtolemy, a Roman citizen of Greek ancestry, wrote the Almagest(150CE) was considered the authority on astronomy throughout the Middle Ages and it suggested a geocentric model of the universe.Ptolemaic World SystemAbove the earth lay a series of concentric spheres, probably fluid in character, one of which contained the moon, another the sun, and still others the planets and the stars.The outer realm contains God and angels The problem of the motions of the planets was something astronomers struggled to chart.Ptolemy believed that the planets moved uniformly about a small circle called an epicycle and the center of the epicycle moved about a larger circle—called a deferent—with the earth at or near its center.

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