The Ordeal of Reconstruction1.The Problems of Peace 1.Following the war, many questions lingered, such as… 1.1.What about the freed blacks? 2.The South had been largely destroyed. It'd have to be rebuilt or reconstructed. How to do this was uncertain and many Southerners still stood staunchly against the North. 2.Freedmen Define Freedom 1.Freed blacks, or "freedmen" were in a perplexing situation. 1.1.They'd heard that they were free, but most still stayed on the plantation where they'd always lived. 1.2.Some blacks fled northward, others sought freedom through the law. 1.3.There was violence as well. Some blacks let their frustrations erupt by destroying white homes, land, etc. Sometimes, the white master even had the table turned on him and was whipped by his former slaves. 2.All slaves were freed eventually, thanks to the U.S. Army's force. 2.1.When emancipation had become a reality, most freedmen still stayed "at home". 2.2.Many took flight however, seeking a better life somewhere, or seeking lost love ones who'd been separated at some point. 3.With the blacks' social structure torn down, churches became a strong pillar of the black community. For example, the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) quadrupled in size in 10 years after the Civil War. 4.The prospect of black education was a hope, but not necessarily a reality. Discrimination and economic resources still held most black children out of school. That hope would not become a reality until much later. 3.The Freedman’s Bureau 1.The freed slaves were largely unskilled, uneducated, and untrained. Congress created the Freedmen's Bureausought to remedy those shortfalls. 1.1.The bureau was essentially an early form of welfare. It was to provide food, clothing,health care, and education. 1.2.Gen. O. O. Howardheaded the bureau (and later founded Howard University in D.C.). 2.The Freedmen's Bureau's success was minimal at best. Its largest accomplishment came in the form ofliteracy—teaching many blacks to read. 3.Unsurprisingly, Southerners disliked the bureau. Pres. Andrew Johnsonunsuccessfully tried to kill it, but it expired in 1872 anyway. 4.Johnson: The Tailor President 1.When Lincoln was assassinated, he was succeeded by Andrew Johnson. 2.Johnson was a Tennessean from very humble origins. 2.1.Although Tennessee seceded during the war, he was the only Southern Congressman to not join the South. This fact got him named to be Lincoln's Vice President in 1864. 2.2.He was known as a fighter, dogmatic, and short a quick temper. 3.Johnson was something of a man-without-a-home. The North never accepted him because he was a Southerner and the South distrusted him because he sided with the North. 5.Presidential Reconstruction 1.Before his assassination, Lincoln had devised the presidential plan for reconstruction.