ENGR 240 - 8.29.2007

ENGR 240 - 8.29.2007 - ENGR 240 Number of covalent bonds an...

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ENGR 240 – August 29, 2007 Number of covalent bonds an atom can form depends on the number of valence electrons Number of covalent bonds = 8 – number of valence electrons For Oxygen: 8 – 6 = 2 covalent bonds available Covalent bonds are found in non-metallic elemental molecules (i.e. an element bonded to itself) and hydrogen bonded with C, O, and N (or more generally the right side of Periodic table) Bonding Energy – 150 – 1000 kJ/mol Many materials exhibit characteristics of covalent and ionic bonds (more than one type of bonding is possible) Example: covalent and ionic characteristics greater difference in electronegativity, the more ionic o % ionic character = {1-exp[-0.25(x A – x B ) 2 ]} x 100 x A – electronegativity of more electronegative atom x B – electronegativity of less electronegative atom o Carbon Monoxide x A – 3.5 - x B – 2.5 - => 22% Metallic Bonding o Found in metals and metal alloys o Typically have 1, 2, or 3 valence electrons
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ENGR 240 - 8.29.2007 - ENGR 240 Number of covalent bonds an...

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