CHEM EXAM 1 Notecard

CHEM EXAM 1 Notecard - Robert Boyle described elements as a...

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Robert Boyle – described elements as a substance that could not be broken down any further Law of Mass Conservation – Matter cannot be created nor destroyed Law of Definite Proportions – Pure substances of the same thing always contain the same proportion (eg. H 2 O, O 2 , CH 4 ) Example reaction: CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O Law of Multiple Proportions 2 , 2 ) Structure of Atoms – shaped like sphere, nucleus, electrons, protons, neutrons Isotopes – elements can have a different mass but have the same chemical properties Mass number – number of protons and neutrons (upper left) Atomic Number – weighted average of isotopes (M 1 A 1 + M 2 A 2 …) 6 Li – 6.0151 amu 7.52% 7 Li – 7.0160 amu 92.48% Compound – elements that combine to form a substance with different properties described by chemical equation Mixture – two substances that are not mixed together Heterogeneous – not uniform, bucket of legos, beef stew Homogenous – uniform, salt and water, sugar and water Covalent Bonds – atoms that share electrons to form a molecule; always two non-metals Structural Formulas – O=C=O (Carbon Dioxide) Elements that exist as Molecules: N 2 O 2 F 2 Cl 2 Br 2 I 2 H 2 Ionic Bonding – atoms donate or accept an electron to form a salt (MgBr 2 – Magnesium Bromide) Polyatomic Ions – MEMORIZE Table 2.3 – covalently bonded atoms that are charged Acids – provide Hydrogen cation (H + ) in water Bases – provide a Hydroxide anion (OH - ) in water Naming Molecular Compounds – two non-metals name cation first name anion second (with –ide) add prefixes o mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, septa-, octa-, nona-, deca- Naming Binary Ionic Compounds – Figure 2.11 Group 1A: +1 ions, Group 2A: +2 ions, Group 3A: +3 ions, Group 4A: +2 ions or +4 ions, Group 5A: -3 ions, Group 6A: -2 ions, Group 7A: -1 ions Transition Metals – name includes a roman numeral with column 4A All Molecules must have a charge equal to zero 1. cation keeps its name 2. anion gets an “ide” 3. metals with unknown cation get a roman numeral Charge on the M + are determined by the anion (ClO – Hypochlorite, ClO 2 –chlorite, ClO 3 –chlorate, ClO 4 – Perchlorate) Naming Common Acids Pure – HF – Hydrogen Flouride, Aqueous – HF – Hydrofluoric Acid Naming OxyAcids o HClO – Hypochlorous Acid, ClO 2 – chlorous Acid, ClO 3 – chloric Acid, ClO 4 – perchloric Acid Mole – mol – number of atoms in 12 g of 12 C Experimentally – 6.022x10 23 units Atomic Mass Unit – amu – 1/12 the mass of 12 C ≡ 1 amu Formula Mass – Sum of the atomic masses of the atoms in a formula unit of any
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course MATH 226 taught by Professor Daepp during the Fall '07 term at Bucknell.

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CHEM EXAM 1 Notecard - Robert Boyle described elements as a...

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