October 11 - LEARNING Learning is a specific modification...

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[October 11, 2012] LEARNING - Learning is a specific modification or change of behavior involving the nervous system that occurs as a result of experience with an external event or series of events in an individual’s life. Learning does not include Maturation of nervous system Male puppy squatting vs. adult male dog “leg lift urination behavior Muscle or nervous system fatigue Sensory adaptation Vision adapting from a bright to a dark room - Categories of learning: 1. Habituation Habituation involves the gradual fading of an unlearned response to a stimulus that proves to be safe or irrelevant. Likely the most primitive and universal form of learning. Nervous system changes as result of repeated exposure to stimulus and animal becomes less responsive to that because it is unimportant Eric Kandel: Aplysia (marine snail) – Gill retraction Gill withdrawal controlled by 1 ganglion containing 6 motor neurons and 24 sensory neurons Habituation involves change at synapses between sensory and motor neurons (less NT released) After few hour response returns. Habituation is temporary response.
Interested in aplysia because readily able to study, relatively simple nervous system, large ganglia. Know: Less NT released at synapses between sensory and motor neurons. Wasteful of time to respond to harmless stimulus. For temporary efficiency, evolved habituation. - Categories of learning: 2. Sensitization Involves showing a response to a previous irrelevant stimulus because something relevant occurred shortly before Octopus: feed it with crab. If you present within a short time frame a neutral object (red card), he attacks it just like he has done with the food. Treats this novel stimulus consistent to what just happened.

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