[October 11, 2012]LEARNING- Learning is a specific modification or change of behavior involving the nervous system that occurs as a result of experiencewith an external event or series of events in an individual’slife.Learning does not includeMaturation of nervous systemMale puppy squatting vs. adult male dog “leg lift urination behaviorMuscle or nervous system fatigueSensory adaptationVision adapting from a bright to a dark room- Categories of learning: 1. HabituationHabituation involves the gradual fading of an unlearned response to a stimulus that proves to be safe or irrelevant. Likely the most primitive and universal form of learning.Nervous system changes as result of repeated exposure to stimulus and animal becomes less responsive to that because it is unimportantEric Kandel: Aplysia (marine snail) – Gill retractionGill withdrawal controlled by 1 ganglion containing 6 motor neurons and 24 sensory neuronsHabituation involves change at synapses between sensory and motor neurons (less NT released)After few hour response returns. Habituation is temporary response.
Interested in aplysia because readily able to study, relatively simple nervous system, large ganglia. Know: Less NT released at synapses between sensory and motor neurons. Wasteful of time to respond to harmless stimulus. For temporary efficiency, evolved habituation.- Categories of learning: 2. SensitizationInvolves showing a response to a previous irrelevant stimulus because something relevant occurred shortly beforeOctopus: feed it with crab. If you present within a short time frame a neutral object (red card), he attacks it just like he has done with the food. Treats this novel stimulus consistent to what just happened.