Chapter 8.pdf - Chapter 8 u2013 Trait theory The...

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Chapter 8 Trait theory: The Five-Factor Model and Contemporary Developments On Taxonomies of Personality A taxonomic structure of personality can allow researchers to focus on a small set of personality trait categories Substantial bodies of evidence indicate that individual differences can be organized in 5 broad, bipolar trait dimensions. Five-Factor model a factor analytic trait-approach just like Eysenck and Cattell. What is different about it is that there is evidence for this theory suggesting that these 5 factors are necessary and reasonable sufficient for a taxonomy of individual differences. The Five-Factor Model of Personality: Research Evidence This model has received support from two types of data: 1) Factor analysis of trait terms in the natural language 2) Statistical analyses of relations among the resulting Big Five factors and other personality trait questionnnaires and ratings. This model can be used to address questions of growth and development in personality. Analysis of Trait Terms in Natural Language and in Questionnaires Personality theories are based and built on different types of variables / units of analysis. Most of these use specialized scientific language ( superego, collective unconciousness). Five-factor model theorists put faith in natural language regular, used everyday, to describe personality. o Specifically place faith in individual words (primariliy adjectives) that describe people. Procedure: individuals rate themselves/ others on a wide variety of traits they are factor analyzed and grouped together. The questions to be answered are: 1) How many difference factors are needed to understand the patters of correlation in the data? 2) What specifically are the factors? “Big” referred to th e finding that each factor subsumes a large number of more specific traits; factors are broad and abstract in the persoanlity hierarchy as Eysenck’s superfactors. OCEAN: Openness, Concientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism. o Trait adjectives are examined to describe individuals who score high and low on each of these factors. Illustrative Traits Associated With High and Low Scores on the Big Five Dimensions Factor High Score Traits Low Score Traits Neuroticism (N) Worrying, nervous, emotional, insecure, tense Calm, relaxed, unemotional, secure, self-satisfied Extraversion (E) Sociable, active, talkative, person- oriented, optimistic, fun-loving, affectionate Reserved, aloof, task-oriented, retiring, quiet, timid Openness (O) Curious, broad interests, creative, original, imaginative, untraditional Conventional, unimaginative, narrow interests, unartistic, unanalytical Agreeableness (A) Kind, cooperative, good-natured, trusting, helpful Cynical, rude, suspicious, uncooperative, vengeful, ruthless, irritable, manipulative Conscientiousnesness (C) Organized, reliable, hard-working, self- disciplined, punctual, scrupulous, neat, ambitious, persevering Aimless, unreliable, lazy, careless, lax, negligent, hedonistic Personality and the Brain

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