Lesson 4: War and PropagandaReading SummariesIntroduction Propaganda in times of war has very important functions. -Some theorists refer to it as a ‘tool’ of warWartime Propaganda: -seeks to communicate, convince and sustain the war w their target populations-uses techniques that appeal to deep seated moral and social ideologies, as well as nationalistic identity and place. Appeals to both reason and emotion -functions largely thru the mass mediaWartime PropagandaPropaganda in modern war:-formidable weapon against the enemy-necessary tool in promoting a national war effort-popular appeals are carried out requesting necessary sacrifices by citizens-need to think of the way democratic countries use propaganda to inform and encourage populations -flow of info can stimulate the wary and give strength to the nationYour Country Needs You: The Propaganda of WarPre WWI: media expanded their reach to the masses-1896: the first mass-circulation newspaper in Britain (the daily mail)-1850s: the first transatlantic telegraph cablesWorld War I Propaganda“the introduction of conscription, recruitment of women into the munitions factories and the Land Army… bomber raids over England and the attempts of german submarines to starve Britain into submission were all new, often traumatic, experiences for a nation learning the rules of modern warfare against a powerful European enemy.” Welch (2013), p.80“in such a struggle, civilian morale came to be recognized as a significant military factor and propaganda began to emerge as the principal instrument of control over public opinion and an essential weapon in the national arsenal.” Welch (2013),p.81propaganda became a strategic and military tool to influence public opinion.
Aimed at 3 diff publicsbritish, neutral countries, enemy’s armyHome PropagandaBritish Propaganda: ‘propaganda of fact’Propaganda Targeted the Population: justified the war. Helped promote recruitment into the armed forces. Convinced the population that their sacrifices would be rewarded.“the basic british approach, known as the ‘propaganda of fact’, was developed, by which the official propaganda presented events as accurately as possible but w an interpretation that was favorable to british war aims.” Welch (2013),p.86Techniques of PropagandaWar propaganda revolved around a few important themes that appealed to larger myths and values of the societyPsychological WarfareConcerned w targeting enemy soldiers and demoralizing them.