1: Spear phishing is an e-mail spoofing fraud attempt that targets a specific organization, seeking
unauthorized access to confidential data. As with the e-mail messages used in regular phishing
expeditions, spear phishing messages appear to come from a trusted source. Phishing messages
usually appear to come from a large and well-known company or Web site with a broad
membership base, such as eBay or PayPal. In the case of spear phishing, however, the apparent
source of the e-mail is likely to be an individual within the recipient's own company and generally
someone in a position of authority.
2: The Hoax in this question is designed to make people believe that the fake AV (anti- virus)
software is genuine.
3: Vishing is the act of using the telephone in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering
private information that will be used for identity theft. The scammer usually pretends to be a
legitimate business, and fools the victim into thinking he or she will profit.
4: Email spam, also referred to as junk email, is unsolicited messages sent in bulk by email
5: Similar in nature to e-mail phishing, pharming seeks to obtain personal or private (usually
financial related) information through domain spoofing. Rather than being spammed with
malicious and mischievous e-mail requests for you to visit spoof Web sites which appear
legitimate, pharming 'poisons' a DNS server by infusing false information into the DNS server,
resulting in a user's request being redirected elsewhere. Your browser, however will show you are
at the correct Web site, which makes pharming a bit more serious and more difficult to detect.