Final Study Guide

Final Study Guide - Medieval Writers/Philosophy Complicated...

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Medieval Writers/Philosophy Complicated Abstract Took place in between Atiquity and The Renaissance “The Dark Age” Greek culture and thinking was eclipsed at the time In the 12 th century Christians turned to Muslim Philosophy turned to the “Church Philosophers” God = influential Authority came to play = of the Bible, Church, etc… Augustine Stated that Genesis should not be taken literally Said that the point of scripture was to lead you into salvation How should I live? How should the state be organized? One of the most prolific = over 500 sermons and books He moved to Rome and became a Manechian (religion from Persia that consisted of the belief of a force of good (light) and a force of evil (dark) The person is a struggle between light and darkness…Soul = Light, Earth = Darkness.) He was enlightened in a park, converted to Christianity, moved to Africa and became one of the most famous Christian Intellectuals. o His Metaphysics Theory: God ------ Divine Souls------Psychic Bodies----Corporal Relates to Plato’s Theory of the Forms (his metaphysics) o Intelligible + Forms = can only be known o Visible + Particular Objects = can be seen The soul has to either turn to God (conversion) or turn towards the body (aversion/perversio) Turning to God = virtuous o This relates to Plato’s Allegory of the Cave in which you need to orient yourself towards God/the sun o He speaks of how Plato is like Jesus: came and got the people to believe God----Is unchangeable Souls---Can change in time (It can change in that it can ave a positive change or a negative change (sin) towards the body) Bodies---Can change in time and place Problem with Evil: why would an all good God create evil? (The Stoics thought this as well)
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Augustine stated that everything God created is good. He says that evil is not created by God, but brought up through human free will (it’s our fault) Evil will = free will Evil is due to privation. If our souls turn to our bodies instead of God, we are creating evil Everything in Nature has some structure; therefore nothing can be purely evil because it would have no good, no structure, and no form. “neither can God’s nature suffer harm, nor can any nature under God suffer harm unjustly” = punishment is deserved After the fall of Adam, humanity is due to suffer (original sin erased the pattern of natural good in the universe) The will itself after Adam is corrupted…We’re not able to not sin. o Family members of a person who was killed are evil, and therefore deserved that misery o Positive = this gives sense to suffering Happiness: All people desire it. If you are unhappy, you are inseparable from wickedness You should never turn to something below you. The only thing above us is God. Material things will not bring true happiness
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Final Study Guide - Medieval Writers/Philosophy Complicated...

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