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Midterm Study Guide

Midterm Study Guide - The Apology Plato"So persuasively did...

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The Apology, Plato “So persuasively did they speak...” * This quote shows that excellence in speaking was very important in ancient Greece. * Excellence in speech according to Socrates = Truth. *Socrates says that the accusers know the accusation are false, but show truthfulness in their excellence in speech. “I had two sets of accusers” = Maletus and those from the past who created his reputation. Analogy: “Who would you get to train your horses? The finest horse breeder…Who would you get to train your children?” If Socrates is right about knowing nothing, and no man is wiser than Socrates, than no man is wise. Socrates admires virtue. He says his purpose is to question people and life, to get people to think. The work teaches that if you are good and moral, you cannot be harmed. Greek in The Apology: Elenchus : Greek meaning refutation. Socrates used the Elenchus method to question those around him in order to show that they were not always wise and true. He asked people who were wealthy, known for being wise, and famous….This made Socrates unpopular because he made others seem foolish. Daemon : Greek for spirit. Socrates said he had one. It may be seen as his subconscious. It may just be Socrates being a strange person. Philia = Love Sophia = Wisdom For Socrates, questioning love and life brings out wisdom. The Republic, Plato Starts out at Cephalus’ house. Polemarchus = Cephalus’ son. Thrasymachus = stands as controversy to whatever Socrates says. Cephalus states that what makes old age bearable is being a good person. To him justice is: 1. Telling the Truth 2. Repaying one’s debts
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Polemarchus: Give to him what is owed to him. Socrates refutes what Polemarchus says by explaining that when people are harmed, they become worse with respect to human virtue…Therefore, people who have been harmed are bound to become more unjust. Thrasymachus: Justice is what’s advantageous for the strong (the rulers.) Justice is good if you are in power, not really when you just obey. Categories of good/types of good: 1. Valued for the sake, not for reward or good consequences (joy) 2. Values for one’s own sake and consequences (Health, Seeing, Knowing) 3. Values only for Consequences and not for they own Sake (medicine) Most would put justice into the third category, but Socrates argues that it should go in the 2 nd category. Glaucon says that the best situation is to be able to do injustice without having to worry about it being inflicted upon us…Getting away with it. He says justice is about making a “social contract.” Irony = Socrates said that the best situation was always being just and having the reputation of an unjust person. He was killed for what being what he called “just.” Socrates wanted the children to be educated properly. Injustice should not be taught to the youth, as it will corrupt their young minds. This is why the idea of censoring stories is brought up, such as censoring Homer.
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Midterm Study Guide - The Apology Plato"So persuasively did...

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