psych study guide 2

psych study guide 2 - 1. What is the "contrast...

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1. What is the "contrast effect" and what does it predict? A contrast effect is the enhancement or diminishment, relative to normal, of perception, cognition and related performance as a result of immediately previous or simultaneous exposure to a stimulas of lessor or greater value in the same dimension. 2. How are culturally appropriate behaviors learned? Cross-Culture training, by observation and practice, acquiring what is appropriate for different cultures. 3. Give some examples of observational learning. Can animals learn by observation? An example would be putting coins in a machine to obtain food. We would refrain from doing this when an "Out of Order sign is placed on the machine. No animals can not learn by observation. 4. How does your text define learning? Learning refers to relatively permanent changes in behavior resulting from practice or experience 5. Describe classical conditioning and operant conditioning. In Classical conditioning, some stimuli can elicit a reflexive response. The reflexive stimulus (UCS) and response (UCR) are unconditioned or innate.
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In classical conditioning, the CS is repeatedly paired with the unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Eventually the CS will produce a response (CR) similar to that produced by the UCS. In operant conditioning, Organisms make responses that have consequences. The consequences serve to increase or decrease the likelihood of making that response again. The response can be associated with cues in the environment (these cues set the occasion for the response) 6. What is the Premack Principle? Principle that a more preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less preferred activity. "eat your veggies before you can have dessert" 7. Give examples of stimulus generalization, stimulus discrimination and spontaneous recovery. Stimulus generalization The tendency for stimuli similar to a conditioned stimulus to evoke the conditioned response Stimulus discrimination The process by which organisms learn to respond to certain stimuli but not to others 8. Describe the consequences of differing schedules of reinforcement. Continous-reinforcement: every occurance of a particular behovoir is reinforcment. (food pellet every time presses the lever.)
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Fixed-Interval: A specific interval of time must elapse before a response will yield reinforcement. (Studying for an exam). Variable-interval: a variable amount of time must elapse before a response will yield reinforcement. Fixed-ratio: Reinforcement occurs only after a fixed number of responses have been emitted. Variable-rario:
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psych study guide 2 - 1. What is the "contrast...

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