FINAL - Achilles_Tendon_Injuries

FINAL - Achilles_Tendon_Injuries - Achilles Tendon Injuries...

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Achilles Tendon Injuries March 3, 2008 Janet Cook Jessilyn Haines Katrina Wyatt
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Introduction: Achilles tendon injuries can be very debilitating to any individual. This is especially true for any athlete who wishes to continue within their field. The types of Achilles tendon injuries considered here include tendonitis, tendinosis, and rupture. Although each type of injury involves the Achilles tendon, there are very specific steps that can be taken to prevent the injury. This paper serves to give an introduction to each injury including the signs and symptoms, and then further discuss the treatment and rehabilitation options for individuals as well as prevention methods that can be taken before injury even occurs. Before we can consider the type of injury, we must understand the structures involved in Achilles tendon injury. Areas and Goals Being Researched: Achilles tendon injuries can affect any person who uses their ankle. There are three different systems that control joint movement: the muscular system, the osseo- ligamentous system, and the neuromuscular control system. Humans can only effectively change the muscle and neuromuscular control systems. Therefore, our goal through this paper is to give athletes the proper tools to prevent and treat any Achilles tendon injuries. Structure and Anatomy: The Achilles tendon originates as the distal extension of two muscles: Gastrocneumius: the longer of the two, it originates from the posterior surface on the distal head of the femur. o Consists of two heads, the lateral and medial heads that originate at the popliteal surface of the femur. o This muscle crosses both the knee and ankle joint which allows for force to be placed on the Achilles tendon during knee extension. Soleus: the shorter muscle of the calf and originates at the posterior surface at the head of the fibula as well as the internal border of the tibia. Both muscles extend to the distal 1/3 of the lower leg before coming together and insert on the posterior end of the calcaneous bone via the Achilles tendon. When these muscles
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contract they induce plantar flexion of the foot, which is important for weight bearing and balance as well as propulsion of the body essential for physical activity. Achilles tendon structure: Fibers: o Attach to the back of the heel past the middle of the body of the heel, which creates a space between the tendon and the calcaneus. When the foot is in dorsiflexion (the foot is flexed toward the shin), this retrocalcaneal space becomes compressed. o The tendon is primarily made up of strong collagen fibers with a smaller amount of elastin fibers, due to its position and increased levels of load bearing and tensile stress. Bursa:
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FINAL - Achilles_Tendon_Injuries - Achilles Tendon Injuries...

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