study guide w.o terms - 1 2 Was a Polis and had a Hoplite...

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1) Was a Polis and had a Hoplite army; only those who had their own armor and weapon can serve. Democratic so regardless of wealth, one can vote and eligible to hold office In reality, it is a narrow oligarchy 2) The _ had 300 members and are the wealthiest and most powerful men in the state of Rome Controlled most aspect of the power, wealth, and military because all city officials were senators as well As time went by, they became corrupt and violent for example, clubbing Gracchus to death because they were afraid that they were going to lose power, thus, leading to Roman revolution 3) Elected as Tribune at the beginning of the Roman Revolution He realized there were two problem: (1) the number of small farmers had declined which meant there were very few soldiers (because soldier had to supply their own equipment), (2) large amount of poverty and unemployment usually farmers who lost their farms He wanted to solve both problems by taking land in Italy and dividing it among the poor. The senate's say no to the idea because (1) They don't want to help the poor (2) The land was being used by the Senators. Gracchus accepts defeat. Next, Gracchus does something unprecedented by ignoring Rome senators and taking this idea to the people instead. The people voted yes so his idea became a law and the senators were not happy with this. They considered him a traitor to his class and revealed the secret of the Roman republic of which, senators were basically not needed at all. Gracchus continues to pass laws in the Tribune assembly; senators gets mad; Gracchus runs for re- election ( first time this happened in Rome and is not presidential) P Cornelius Nasica , a senator and Gracchus cousin, hated him and lead senators out to club him to death First Roman city official to be murdered; Began the Roman Revolution after 4) Was elected as one of the two Councils. A commoner that made it to the top of the political ladder Wants to fight North Africa but did not have an army so he let everyone enroll in the army and the state will provide the poor with weapons. Gets a big army of poor volunteers and wins a lot of battles: North Africa, Barbarian Tribes North of Germany. He and his army return home after fighting and he ask the senate to give his soldiers a " retirement package" for fighting for Rome; senators says no; Marius goes to the people and the people vote yes
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Senators gets mad but can't do anything because Marius has loyal soldiers that would protect him Important because Marius created the tool that will destroy the Roman Republic because most poor people will be soldiers and the soldiers will be loyal to their general instead of to the state.
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