ch16a&p - CHAPTER 16 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Slid e1...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/7/09 1 Chapter 16 Endocrine System
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5/7/09 Introduction Endocrine glands are “ductless glands”; many are made of glandular epithelium whose cells manufacture and secrete hormones ; a few endocrine glands are made of neurosecretory tissue Hormones—MESSENGERS carried to almost every point in the body; can regulate most cells; effects work more slowly and last longer than those of neurotransmitters Glands of the endocrine system are widely scattered throughout the body (Figure 16-2; 2
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Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/7/09 The partner system to the Nervous S. in CONTROL of bodily functions is the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM {compare & contrast:} NERVOUS : Quick, short-acting, ‘electrical’ (sp. RESPONSE) SYSTEM via nerve fibers to specific location ENDOCRINE slower, long-acting, ‘hormonal’ SYSTEM: via blood stream, generalized ( MAINTENANCE) (systemic) Sli de
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5/7/09 Endocrine System Secretions, i.e. “hormones “ released into ECF and then affect either : A. only the tissues adjacent, or B. cells throughout body ‘tissue hormones’ - Prostaglandins
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5/7/09 Placenta: hCG ( PG test )
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5/7/09 10 MAJOR (FULL TIME) ENDOCRINE ORGANS or HYPOTHALAMUS PITUITARY GLAND (Anterior and Posterior) PINEAL GLAND THYROID GLAND (4) PARATHYROID GLANDS THYMUS GLAND PANCREAS (islets) (2) ADRENAL GLANDS (Cortex and Medulla – Neuroendocrine) 6
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5/7/09 (minor) Endocrine organs – (part –time, or ‘Adjunct’ Heart Kidneys Digestive tract Adipose tissue Placenta (Prostaglandins are ‘local’ or ‘tissue hormones’, which are produced in a multitude of tissues throughout the body.) 7
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5/7/09 What hormones are produced by the various Endocrine glands? … Go back 3 slides 8
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5/7/09 HORMONES; 2 Categories – Based on Chemical makeup, and mode of function ‘Steroid’ hormones All derived from Chosterol Aldosterone Cortisol Estrogen Progesterone Testosterone other, special – local Prostaglandins ‘non-Steroid’ hormones Amino Acid : (1, few (peptides), many (proteins, glycoproteins) 9
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5/7/09 Lipid derivatives Steroid hormones structurally similar to cholesterol Androgens, estrogens, mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids, calcitriol Eicosanoids which coordinate cellular activities and affect enzymatic processes such as blood clotting Leukotrienes: coordinate tissue response to injury Prostaglandins: coordinate local cellular activities
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5/7/09 (See overhead - cholesterol derived Hormones) 11
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5/7/09 Single Amino Acid Derivatives Tyrosine, tryptophan Small molecules structurally related to amino acids Derivatives of tyrosine Epinephrine Norepinephrine Dopamine These are known as the CATECHOLAMINES Impt. as Vasopressors Thyroxine (Thyroid hormone) IODINATED TYROSINE Derivative of tryptophan: Melatonin (Pineal gland)
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5/7/09 Peptides, proteins
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIOL 101 taught by Professor Koontz during the Spring '08 term at University of Mary Hardin–Baylor.

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ch16a&p - CHAPTER 16 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Slid e1...

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