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CHAPTER 2 - CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM1) HEART STRUCTURE- Heart enclosed in double walled sac (pericardium)kantung 2 lapis yg cover jantungFunctions : protect and anchor hearts, prevent overfilling of heart with blood as it isflexible and stretchable , allow heart to work in free environment (no friction happendue to the pelincir (pericardial fluid)- Layers of heart wallEpicardium (outermost layer-visceral pericardium)--ada lemakMyocardium (contracting layer, composed of cardiac muscle)Endocardium (white sheet of endothelium located in inner myocardial surfaces)- Chambers and vessels4 chambers separated by septum2 superior atria- separated by interatrial septum- receiving chambers , incharge for the blood returning to the heart.2 inferior vetricles - separated by interventricular septum- discharging chambers, incharge of pumping blood from heart.Right atrium - receivesdeoxygenatedbloodfrom the bodyRight ventricle - pumpsdeoxygenatedbloodto the lungsLeft atrium - receivesoxygenatedbloodfrom the lungsRight atrium - pumpsoxygenatedblood toall over the body.*this is why ventricles have thicker muscle than atria**left ventricle have thickest muscle as it has to pump blood to all over the body tissues.
- Valves of the heartAtrioventricular valves - located between atria and ventriclesTricuspid - between RA and RVBicuspid - between LA and LVSemilunar valves - located between ventricles and arteries leaving the heartPulmonary - between RV and pulmonary trunkAortic - between LV and aorta- Chordae tendineaeHeart strings, connect papillary muscles to tricuspid valve and bicuspid valvePrevent valves from moving into the atria when the ventricle contractsHow chordae tendineae acts
2) HEART CIRCULATIONS- Pulmonary circulationsBetween heart and lungs (from heart to lungs, from lungs to heart)