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Energy Balance, weight management, eating disorders

Energy Balance, weight management, eating disorders -...

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Energy Balance
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Measurements of Energy Energy from food is converted into energy (ATP) the body can use to do work Cellular respiration (making ATP, releasing CO 2 and H 2 0) Kcal- amount of energy in food **1 kcal= amount of heat to raise 1 kg water, 1degree Celsius** Energy Balance - Consuming the right amount of food.
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How do we determine energy in food??? Bomb calorimeter- measures kcals - measures how much heat is released from food when you burn it. Some error involved - We never digest 100% of food. Some gets lost in the feces but they correct for it. Food composition tables Nutrition Facts labels Exchange Lists
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Food Label
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Energy based on nutrient composition of food A cup of pepsi has 25 g carbohydrate Kcal= 25g x 4 = 100 Kcal ¼ cup egg whites has 8 g of protein Kcal = 8g x 4 = 32 Kcal 1 tsp oil has 5 g fat Kcal= 5g x 9 = 45 Kcal Alcohol = 1 g = 7 Kcal
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How many kcals are in planters peanut butter cookie crisps? 24 g serving has: 3 g fat x 9 = 27 17 g carbohydrate x 4 = 2 g protein x 4 = Do not include fiber Take it away from carbs
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Stored Energy Adipose tissue- triglycerides - fat Glycogen- glucose - storing carb - found in liver and muscle Don’t store protein; only used for body compounds Brain and red blood cells need glucose could live off of ketones but only for a little bit Other body tissue can use fat for energy Can use ketones Starvation- fat provides energy, body proteins broken down to make glucose - Lose 75% fat, 25% muscle - if losing it slowly. 50/50 if fast
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Building Body Stores Most meals contain more energy than body needs
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Determining Energy Requirements BMR (Basal Metabolic Weight)= 60-75% of energy needs - Involuntary functions If you have a fever the BMR increases Infants have highest calories compared to weight Producing milk can burn 600-700 calories TEF (Thermic Effect of Food)= 10% - amount of energy to digest, absorb, and metabolize nutrients Activity= 15-30% TEE Other factors- growth, illness, lactation, temperature of food or environment may increase needs
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Basal Metabolic Rate Energy required for organ function to keep body alive To measure: 1. 12 hour fast 2. Subject in bed 3. Warm room RMR- if above conditions cannot be met (10-20% above BMR)
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Basal Metabolic Rate Effected by: 1. Body Weight 2. More muscle Tissue ^ the BMR 3. LBM Gender Age 4. Body Temperature (1°= 7%) 5. Thyroid Hormones 6. Low energy diets - lose weight slowly to preserve lean body mass. 7. Slow weight loss (.5-2 lbs per week) 8. 25% lean, 75% fat 9. Starvation (quick weight loss) 10. 50% lean/ 50% fat 11. More effect on BMR
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Thermic Effect of Food Energy required for: ***KNOW THIS FOR TEST*** Digestion Absorption Metabolism Storage of nutrients Higher with bigger meals, lower with smaller meals Fat uses 2-3% of energy to digest Protein 15% of energy to digest Carbs 6-8% of its energy to digest Protein, carbohydrate vs. fat
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Physical Activity Energy expended increases with weight 15-30% of energy needs Speed Amount of weight lifted Time After exercise effect
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