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ps101hoffmanoutline4midterm01(lecture)

ps101hoffmanoutline4midterm01(lecture) - PS101/Hofmann...

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PS101/Hofmann Outline for Midterm (I): Lecture I. Chap. 1 (9/7/07) Psychology as a Science a. Definition of “psychology” b. History of psychology c. Contemporary perspectives d. Psychological experiment e. Statistical method II. Definition of Psychology a. Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes b. Scientific : use of (quasi) experiments, testing of hypothesis, objective methods c. Behavior and Mental processes : object of the study needs to be observable and quantifiable d. Philosophical Roots : Ancient Greek (I), Greek word for “Psyche/Soul” is “Breathe” III. Ancient Greek a. Socrates (470-?BC): Immortal Soul
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b. Plato (428-348BC; student of Socrates) i. Mind/Body Dualism ii. The soul consists of 3 parts: appetitive, courageous/spirited, and rational part iii. Innate Knowledge (nativism): Knowledge can be derived by logical deduction (rationalism) c. Aristotle (384-322 BC; Student of Plato) i. Soul not separate from body (like sight is to eye) IV. Next 2000 Years a. Rene Descartes (1596-1650) i. Cognito ergo sum (I think therefore I am); conscious distinguishes humans from animals; animals (mindless) “living” machines ii. Mind and Body interact iii. Behaviors are inherited (nature) b. John Locke (1632-1704) i. Behaviors acquire an result of environment (empiricism) ii. Nurture V. Birth of Psychology
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a. Father of Psych: Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) i. Birth year (of psych): 1879 ii. Place: Leipzig, Germany iii. Father: Wilhelm Wundt iv. Method: Introspection v. Prominent Students: William James (Harvard, E.B______ Cornell) b. William James (1890): Principles of Psychology (first textbook) i. “Psychology is the description and explanation of states of consciousness as such.” c. John B. Watson (1878-1958) i. Believed behaviorism (most influential) (consciousness is experimental) ii. Psychologist have to follow scientific method d. Watson (Behaviorism) vs. James (introspective psych) i. Other orientations/Schools of psych: Psychoanalysis (Sigmund Freud) e. Roots of Behaviorism
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i. Logical positivism (Vionna Circle, 1928): all statements are verifiable by observation, analytic/logic, or meaningless. f. Karl Popper: falsifiability distinguishes science from non-science; there are no “pure” or “theory-free” observations. VI. Psychology Today a. Behaviorism was dominant orientation until 70’s b. 80’s: Cognitive revolution in psychotherapy (Aaron T. Beck) and experimental psychology (information-processing perspective) c. Today: Neuroscience revolution VII. Chap. 2 (9/10/07) Perspectives in Psychology a. Psychology i. Behavioral approach ii. Biological approach iii. Phenomenological approach iv. Psychoanalytic approach v. Cognitive approach b. Where Psychologists work i. 36% Colleges
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ii. 22% Independent iii. 20% Hospitals and clinic iv. 13% Business, gov. and other v. 5% Schools vi. 3% Medical Schools VIII. The Statistical Method a. In order to test the hypothesis of an experiment, the researcher uses statistical techniques.
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