Aponeurosis d retinaculum 0 0 score 2 feedback 0505

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Unformatted text preview: ia nigra part of the midbrain). The basal nuclei function in association with the corticospinal system to control complex patterns of motor activity. When there is serious damage the basal nuclei the motor cortex can no longer provide the patterns for many skilled and repetitive actions. Included are: writing letters of the alphabet, using scissors, hammering nails, shooting a basketball, passing a football, shoveling dirt, controlled eye movements and many others. Several circuits connect the basal nuclei with the motor association areas, sensory association areas, and the motor cortex in loops which provide both positive and negative feedback. 14 Role of the Basal Nuclei • Complex and repetitive movements e.g. writing letters of the alphabet, using scissors, hammering nails, shooting a basketball, passing a football, shoveling dirt, controlled eye movements • Modify voluntary motor activity: connections to motor association areas, sensory association areas, and the motor cortex produce positive and negative feedback loops. • Facilitation and inhibition. 15 Which part would contain the reflex center for blinking? (A) Basal nuclei (B) pineal gland (C) Substantia nigra (D) Corpora qadrigemina Answer D Superior Colliculi 16 Which part contains the respiratory center? (A) Pineal gland (B) Hypothalamus (C) Thalamus (D) Medulla Answer D 17 Which part controls most endocrine glands? (A) Pineal gland (B) Hypothalamus (C) Thalamus (D) Medulla Answer B 18 Visual signals would travel to which parts? (A) Pineal gland (B) Hypothalamus (C) Thalamus (D) Medulla Answer A,C 19 Which part is is a cortical component of 3 the limbic system? 8 0 9 4 5 7 1 6 2 Answer 1 20 The part of the limbic system which activates fear and other emotional responses: (A) mammillary body (B) Hypothalamus (C) Amygdala (D) Hippocampus Answer C 21 Limbic System Components Figure 12.18 CCoonnsscciioouuss mmaanniiffeessttaattiioonnss ooff eemmoottiioonn Amygdala CCeenntteerr ffoorr eemmoottiioonnaall rreessppoonnsseess Hippocampus Mammillary body MMeemmoorryy Memory, possibly olfactory Memory, possibly olfactory Fornix Part of Thalamus Pleasure center; stress responses Pleasure center; stress responses Hypothalamus Cingulate gyrus The Limbic System is usually considered as composed of the following: The cingulate gyrus - lies above the corpus callosum, connects the system to the cerebral cortex. The hypothalamus - contains the pleasure, reward, or satiety center. Mamillary body - contains memory pathways, especially for olfaction. Hippocampus - responsible for short and long term memory and learning. Amygdaloid nucleus - also part of the basal nuclei, important in emotional motor responses. Part of the thalamus and the fornix. 22 Pathways of Fear Pre-frontal cortex – Cortex – cingulate gyrus Stimulus Thalamus Hippocampus Amygdala Sympathetic N.S. “Fight or Flight” Hypothalamus Pituitary Fornix Septum Mammillary body “Low Road” “High Road” Evolution has designed the brain so...
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