Parathyroid hormone c estrogen 0 d growth hormone 0 e

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Unformatted text preview: core: 0.5/0.5 100% 20. facilitation Prior sub-threshold depolarization of a reflex pathway produces: Student Response Value Feedback Student Response A. facilitation 100% B. inhibition 0% C. divergence 0% D. convergence 0% Score: 0.5/0.5 Given: muscle where stimulus occurs is the biceps brachii, Action is elbow flexion. What type of reflex is produced here? B) tendon Given: muscle where stimulus occurs is the biceps brachii, Action is elbow flexion. Which number shows the Inhibitory pathway? 3 What type of receptor is involved in producing this reflex? B) Golgi tendon organ, Which tracts might carry a signal from this reflex to the brain? (B) Fasciculus gracilis and cuneatus (C) Spinocerebellar Which of the following cells produces the myelin sheath in the CNS? 2)Oligodendrocytes Which of the following cells is important in nerve fiber regeneration? 1)Schwann cells A structure in the CNS that is analogous with a nerve? 3)Tract Which tract carries pain, temperature, touch and pressure? 1)Spinothalamic Which tracts reach the cerebral cortex? 1)Spinothalamic 3)Fasciculus gracilis and cuneatus There are how many pair of spinal nerves? 3)31 The femoral nerve arises from which plexus? 3)Lumbar The axillary nerve arises from which plexus? 2)Brachial The sciatic nerve forms which of the following? 3)Tibial and peroneal (fibular) Cholinergic Receptors- respond to acetylcholine Nicotinic – found at all autonomic ganglia and as excitatory receptors for skeletal muscles. Muscarinic – found at parasympathetic target organs and at certain sympathetic targets: e.g. eccrine sweat glands (thermoregulation), blood vessels to skeletal muscles (vasodilation) Types depend on stimulation by nicotine or muscarine: The term cholinergic refers to those receptors which respond to the transmitter acetylcholine. Mostly these are parasympathetic. There are two types of cholinergic receptors, classified according to whether they are stimulated by the drug nicotine or by the drug muscarine. The significance is that certain clinical drugs can be used to stimulate or inhibit one type of cholinergic receptor without affecting other types. 1) nicotinic receptors are found at all autonomic ganglia, and at the neuromuscular junctions of skeletal muscles. 2) muscarinic receptors are found at parasympathetic target organs and at certain sympathetic targets - the eccrine sweat glands (which produces copious secretion in thermoregulation to release heat), and blood vessels in skeletal muscles (which are dilated). Adrenergic Receptors - respond to norepinephrine Alpha – mostly excitatory e.g. vasoconstricts blood vessels, constricts GI sphincters, dilates pupils of eyes. Beta – mostly inhibitory (except on heart where they increase rate and force) e.g. vasodilation in heart and lungs, bronchial dilation, inhibition of muscles in GI tract. Found at most sympathetic target organs. Adrenergic receptors come in two basic types and each has subtypes. These are found at sympathetic target organs. Alpha receptors are mostly excitatory. They caus...
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This note was uploaded on 01/29/2013 for the course BIOL 239 taught by Professor Swan during the Fall '12 term at New Mexico.

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