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ps101hoffmanoutline4midterm02(lecture)

ps101hoffmanoutline4midterm02(lecture) - PS101/Hofmann...

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PS101/Hofmann Outline for Midterm (II): Lecture I. Chap. 11 (10/24/07) Intelligence II. Personality and Individual Differences a. Heritability b. Interaction with Hox genes and environment c. Assessment of Individual Differences d. Criteria for a good test e. Intelligence f. Personality III. Heritability a. Percent of variance of a certain characteristic that is accounted for by genetic differences among individuals in a poor population (H is 100% if all individual differences are due to genetic differences.) b. Examples: i. Height: 85-95% abilities
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ii. Intelligence: 60-70% personality iii. 50% religious iv. Political beliefs: 30-40% c. H refers to the population, not the individual… (incomplete, get notes from someone) IV. (10/26/07) Intelligence (cont) a. Precise definition depends on test b. Boring : Intelligence is what the Intelligence test measures (tautology) c. Wechsler : Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the person to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with his/ her experiment d. Galton : Intelligence is related to exceptional sensory and perceptual skills. Therefore smart people should have larger head sizes and better visual/auditory abilities than “normal” (he was wrong) e. Alfred binet (1881) : Chronological age vs. mental age f. Sanford-Binet (Terman, 1916) : IQ=Mental age/chronological age times 100 (mean: 100, SD: 15)
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i. Short-term memory, and verbal, abstract/visual/ and quantitative reasoning g. Wechsler Intelligence Scales (e.g., WAIS) : i. Verbal scales (ex. Information, vocabulary) and performance scale (ex. Matrix reason, object assembly). h. See table in the notebook V. (10/29/07) Intelligence (cont II) a. Difference between intelligence (convergent thinking; within problem framework) and creativity (divergent thinking): i. Creativity involves finding a new and useful solution to a problem ii. It may demand that we reject conventional ideas iii. It may clarify a problem that was originally vague VI. Criteria for a good test a. Validity : Test should measure what it is supposed to measure (criterion validity, convergent and discriminant validity) b. Reliability : Whatever the test measures, it should measure it well (test-retest, reliability, alternate form reliability, internal consistency).
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i. For ability tests: greater than .9 ii. For personality tests: greater than .7 VII. Personality a. Definition: Distinctive and characteristic patterns of thought; emotions and behaviors that define an individual style of interaction with physical and social environment. b. Objective personality inventor : MMPI, Cattell 16 PF c. (10/31/07) Projective Tests : i. Rorschach, TAT ii. Ambiguous stimulus is presented to circumvent defense mechanism and access unconscious material iii. Answers are classified in various categories that indicate unconscious motives. iv. Problems :………… (find later) d.
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