ps101hoffmantxtbookChapter 1

ps101hoffmantxtbookChapter 1 - Chapter 1: The Origins of...

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Chapter 1: The Origins of Psychology I. The Study of Psychology a. Better understand our own thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and attitudes b. Strengthen our appreciation of tolerance for the wide differences that exist among people c. Investigates a wide variety of questions and attempts to answer them using scientific methods d. Evaluate the many so-called psychological facts we encounter every day in the popular media II. Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes a. Psychology as a Science i. Knowing how to deal with people effectively ii. Assistance is more likely to be given if very few bystanders are present iii. Presence of other people affects our perception of an emergency situation iv. Tend to diffuse our responsibility to act in an emergency to others who are present v. Using scientific method provides enlightening and reliable info about behavior that we might not otherwise learn vi. Relying on common sense produces subjective opinions that may have little basis in fact.
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vii. As science progresses, subjective opinions and folklore are either confirmed or left behind viii.Many questions about behavior remain unanswered b. The Study of Behavior i. Both behavioral and mental processes ii. Direct observations of behavior c. The Study of Mental processes i. Learning about psychology from nonhuman animals 1. Need to find a simpler model by first studying the simplest examples available in nature. 2. Research can provide greater control. The more control the experimenter has over these variables, the more precise the conclusions can be. 3. Ethical considerations a. Ethics committees (Institutional Review Boards) review all proposed studies to ensure that the welfare of subjects (human or otherwise) is safeguarded. 4. Practical. Animals are available for experiments at minimal cost 5. Simply to learn more about behavior III. Psychology’s History a. Intro
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i. Rene Descartes 1. Dualism- the physical body was mechanical and obeyed known laws of physics 2. Mind or soul not physical but interacted in some way through the pineal gland to produce intentional behavior ii. Determinism- central to the science of psychology. Physical events caused or determined by other physical events iii. Roots in physiology 1. Empiricism- knowledge is bet acquired through observation 2. Scientific method- careful observation of events in the world, formation of
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ps101hoffmantxtbookChapter 1 - Chapter 1: The Origins of...

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