ps101hoffmantxtbookChapter 3

ps101hoffmantxtbookChapter 3 - Chapter 3: The Biology of...

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Chapter 3: The Biology of Behavior I. Overview of the Nervous System: Organization and Function a. Nervous system consists of central nervous system and peripheral nervous system b. Central nervous system consists of brain and spinal cord i. Encased in bones ii. Surrounded by protective membranes called meninges. iii. Role in coordinating and integrating all bodily functions iv. Processor of incoming and outgoing messages v. Sends commands directly to various parts of bodies w/o receiving an incoming sitimulus. vi. Hypothalamus, small structure in brain that serves many functions. c. Peripheral nervous system i. Somatic and autonomic nervous system d. Neurons- cells that make up the nervous system. II. Neurons: Basic Units of the nervous system a. Sensory (afferent) neurons- carries messages to CNS from receptors in the skin, ears, nose, eyes b. Motor (efferent) neurons- interpret messages to muscels and glands. c. Interneurons- communitcate directly with each other
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d. Neuron Structure i. The Cell body or soma 1. Largest part of the neuron, also containing nucleus ii. The dendrites 1. Part of the neuron that receives transmitted signals which are fibers 2. More extensive, more connections can be made with other neurons. iii. The axon 1. Slender, extended fiber that takes signal from cell body at axon hillock and transmits it along entire length in spinal cord and PNS neurons 2. Splits to branches called collaterals 3. Myelin- type of cell that wraps around the axon a. Insulates axon, increase speed of conduction along the axon. iv.
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ps101hoffmantxtbookChapter 3 - Chapter 3: The Biology of...

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