12 Oct 07 - Using a Testcross to Confirm Predictions...

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Using a Testcross to Confirm Predictions
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Genotype can be inferred from the results of a testcross with a homozygous recessive ( rryy ).
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(Could also be RRYy , or RrYY , or RRYY ) What would genotypes and phenotypes be if RRYy,RrYY, or RRYY?
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In garden peas, in a testcross with a parent with the genotype RRYy, what fraction of offspring will be round, and what fraction will be yellow? A. None will be round, and all will be yellow B. All will be round, and all will be yellow C. All will be round, and half will be yellow D. All of the male peas will have Jacobs syndrome E. None of the above
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Exceptions to Mendel’s Rules By studying a simple genetic system, Mendel discovered the most fundamental rules of inheritance.
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But many (in fact most ) patterns of inheritance do NOT follow Mendel’s rules!
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POST MENDELIAN GENETICS
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THE CHROMOSOME THEORY OF INHERITANCE Walter Sutton & Theodor Boveri (1903): Movement of chromosomes during meiosis provides the physical basis for Mendel’s principles
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EXTENDING THE CHROMOSOME THEORY Thomas Hunt Morgan: Drosophila melanogaster as a model species: Small size Easy to culture Short reproductive cycle (10 days) Abundant progeny Well-developed external anatomy
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MORGAN & Drosophila Morgan Revealed Extensions of Mendel’s Rules: Eye color linked to sex of progeny (sex-linkage)!
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Morgan discovered a white eyed male (mutant phenotype) MORGAN’S WORK WITH Drosophila Red Eyes In Flies Is Normal (wild type) White Eyes Is Rare (mutation)
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MORGAN & Drosophila To Explore How Eye Color is Inherited in Flies Morgan crossed: All F 1 Have Red Eyes **Morgan concludes Red eye dominant to white eye allele. Red-eyed Female White-eyed Male X
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MORGAN & Drosophila Next, Morgan crossed F 1 s: Red-eyed Female X Red-eyed Male All of the white eyed flies were male 3:1 Ratio of red to white, but
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MORGAN & Drosophila To test if sex and eye color were linked, Morgan crossed : Red-eyed Females (from F 1 ) X White-eyed Males Some F 2 FEMALES had White eyes Morgan concludes BOTH sexes can have WHITE eyes
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MORGAN & Drosophila However, Reciprocal Cross Produced Different Results !
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