exam 2 study questions

exam 2 study questions - Exam 2 Study Questions 1 In...

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Exam 2 Study Questions 1) In mitosis, chromosomes are arranged randomly along the metaphase plate during metaphase. After metaphase the sister chromatids separate and are pulled to opposite sides of the cell. A similar process occurs in meiosis during metaphase I and II, and in anaphase I and II. The difference in meiosis and mitosis is that the chromosomes replicated in mitosis are identical but the chromosomes in daughter cells from meiosis contain genes from their maternal and paternal chromosomes. During meiosis, the cells are diploid for the start of meiosis I, and become haploid after telophase I and cytokinesis. Meiosis creates four haploid daughter cells while mitosis creates two diploid daughter cells. 2) Crossing over does not occur during mitosis, as the chromosomes are identical replicates of each other. 3) Diploid means that there are two versions of each chromosome per cell. Haploid cells only contain one of each type of chromosome. Autosomes are diploid body cells. Sex chromosomes are haploid cells. Gametes, reproductive cells, are diploid cells that become haploid during meiosis. 4) Crossing over leads to greater genetic variation between individuals within a population because it produces new combinations of alleles on the same chromosome that did not exist in either parent. The separation and distribution of homologous chromosomes also varies the combination of chromosomes. Fertilization increases genetic variation since the zygote will contain chromosomes from different individuals that are likely to contain different alleles. 5) Self-fertilization is not likely to result in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent or to each other. The homologs that have crossed over line up and separate randomly, leading to genetic variation. The gametes produced by meiosis then combine with each other, forming offspring with even more genetic variation. 6) Haploid daughter cells are first produced during meiosis I, there are two. These cells are not gametes, and a nuclear envelope has reformed around the chromosomes. Four haploid daughter cells are produced from the entire process of meiosis. 7) There would be 46 replicated chromosomes in a somatic cell prepared to undergo mitosis. There would be 92 individual molecules of DNA in this cell. After mitosis, there will be 46 chromosomes in each daughter cell and 46 molecules of DNA. 8) 46 replicated chromosomes. There would be 92 individual molecules of DNA. There would be 23 replicated chromosomes in each daughter cell after meiosis I, and 46 molecules of DNA. After meiosis II there are 23 chromosomes in each daughter cell, and 23 molecules of DNA. 9) A male with the genotype Zz can produce two unique gametes, Z and z. A male with the genotype ZZ can only produce one unique gamete, Z. A male with the genotype AaBB can produce two unique gametes, AB and aB. The statements above also hold true for a female of the same genotypes. A male/female with the genotype AaBbCc can produce eight unique gametes. An individual with the
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genotype AaBbCcDd can produce sixteen unique gametes. 10) TtPp.
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exam 2 study questions - Exam 2 Study Questions 1 In...

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