Chapter 44

Chapter 44 - Please, Turn Your Cell Phones OFF Now. Thanks!...

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Please, Turn Your Cell Phones OFF Now. Thanks!
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Chapter 44 Gas Exchange and Circulation
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Chapter 41
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Cellular Respiration Review Mitochondria produce ATP via cellular respiration. Consume O 2 Produce CO 2 If no O 2 obtained suffocation or drowning If excess CO 2 not expelled toxicity symptoms/disease Death occurs because ATP production stops.
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Gas Exchange Ventilation- air or water moves through gas exchange organ. O 2 2 exchanged between air or water and blood. Circulation- circulatory system transports O 2 2 Respiration- cells exchange O 2 2 with blood as mitochondria use O and release CO during cellular respiration.
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Figure 44.1 Air or Water Blood Mitochondria Respiratory surface Circulatory system Cell Environment O 2 diffuses into mitochondria from environment CO 2 diffuses out of mitochondria into environment
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What gas do you breath in (inhale) the most? Second most? Third most? Oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen nitrogen, carbon dioxide, oxygen carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen
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What gas do you breath out (exhale) the most? Second most? Third most? Oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen nitrogen, carbon dioxide, oxygen carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen
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Figure 44.2 What gases make up the atmosphere? 2 (~78%), O 2 (~21%), CO 2 (0.03%), other (~1%) (b) How is air pressure measured? mmHg Partial Pressure O 2 at sea level = (%) x 760 mmHg (P O2 = .21x 760 = 160 mmHg)
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Remember. .... O 2 and CO 2 diffuse between environment and cells along partial pressure gradients.
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To Produce ATP, Animals Must Obtain O 2 and Eliminate CO 2 Air has Advantages over Water as a Respiratory Medium: Air contains more oxygen than water does, ~21% of air is O 2 aquatic animals have to process 30 times more water than terrestrial animals process air for the same amount of O 2 Solubility of oxygen is low in water -- at 15 o C, ~ 210 ml O 2 /liter of air vs ~ 7 ml O 2 /liter of water Air is easier to move past the respiratory surface (greater density of water more energy needed to ventilate respiratory surface) Disadvantage : Air is dry Dehydration
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Figure 44.4 Rate of diffusion of a gas depends on 5 parameters: - Solubility of gas in aqueous film lining gas exchange surface - Temperature - Surface area available for diffusion - Difference in partial pressures of the gas across gas exchange surface (P2-P1) - Thickness of the barrier to diffusion Fick’s Law of Diffusion
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Design parameters: To maximize diffusion, make A (respiratory surface area) as large as possible, keep D (respiratory membrane thickness) as small as possible, and maintain a large partial pressure difference (P 2 -P 1 ) between the internal and external environment (keep the air or water moving). Fick’s Law of Diffusion- Maximum Rate of Diffusion
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Chapter 44 - Please, Turn Your Cell Phones OFF Now. Thanks!...

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