1INDIA PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY IMPORTANT MOUNTAIN RANGES KARAKORAM RANGES: 1.Extends form the Pamir, east of the Gilgist River, 600 km long and the average width 120-140km. 2.Ancient name was Krishnagiri. 3.Trans Himalaya, originally a part of Eurasian plate. 4.Abode of largest glaciers in India. 5.Siachen, Baltora, Biafo, and Hisper all the four of largest glacier are in Karakoram. 6.Highest Peak: K2or Godwin Austin (8611m) 7.Other important Peak: Gasherbrum or Hidden Peak Broad Peak and Gasherbrum II 8.In the northern limit of Karakoram Range lies Pamir, the Aghil Mountains and the Yarkand River and in the southern limit Rive Indus and its tributary Shyok. LADDAKH RANGE 1.Situated to the north of Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone (ITSZ) and south or Karakoram, between River Indus and Shyok. 2.Highest Peak: Mt.Rakaposhi (steepest peak in the world) (A)GREAT HIMALAYA OR HIMADRI 1. Northern most part of the Himalayan Range is the world’s highest with an average altitude of 6,000m. 2. include the word’s highest peak, Mt. Everest(8,848 m) , Makalu (8,481m) Mansalu (8,156m), Annapurna(8,078m) and also the Indian peak Kanchenjungs (8,598 m) and Nanga Parbat(8,126m)
23. Include some famous passes- Burzil and Zozila in Kashmir, Shipki La and Bara lapchala in Himachal Pradesh, Thag La, Niti Pass, and Lipulekh in U.p Jelepla and Nathu La in Sikkim. ZASKAR RANGE Western part of the main Great Himalayan Mountain is situated to the south of Trans Himalayan. Nanga Parbat (8,126m) Forms the north-west part of Zaskar Range but geographically confined to the Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Garhwal region. Second highest peak of the Himalayan Range in India. Dhalagiri (8,172 m) Eastern continuation of Nanga Parbat and is located in Nepal. (B) LESSER HIMALAYA Also known as Himachal-Himalaya which is separated from the Shiwalik Range by Duns. (I)PIR PANJAL RANGE Located in Kashmir, Punjab and extends from the Jhelum River to the upper Beas River for over 300km. Separated form the Zaskar Range by the valley of Kashmire (vale of Kashmir) (II)DHAULADHAR Southern-most range of the Lower or Lesser Himalaya. Rarely attains elevations higher then 4,000m Continue eastward in to Mahabharat Range. (C)SIWALIK RANGE Extends from Jammu & Kashmir (150km wide) to Arunachal Pradesh (8-15km) over 2400km.
3Northern limit-Main Boundary thrust which separates Outer Himalaya from the Lesser Himalaya. Its southern limit is Indo Gangetic Plain. Also known as Sub-Himalaya or Outer Himalaya. Youngest part of mountain chain stretching form the Brahmaputra to the Indus. Separated from Lesser Himalaya by Main Boundary Thrust. CLASSIFICATION OF HIMALAYA ON THE BASIS OF GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: NAME LOCATION DISTANCE 1.Punjab Himalaya Between Indus and Sutlej 560 km 2.Kumaon Himalaya Between Sutluj and Kali 320 km 3.Nepal Himalaya Between Kali and Tista 800 km 4.Assam Himalaya Between Tista and Dihang 720 km THE PURVANCHAL (The North Eastern Highland) The Himalaya range after crossing the Dihang gorge in the east, bend southwards, forming a series of hills, in north south trend.