Chapter 31 - CR

Chapter 31 - CR - Chapter 31 Fungi Page 1 of 28 31.1: Fungi...

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Page 1 of 28 Chapter 31 Chapter 31 Fungi
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Page 2 of 28 31.1: Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absorption feed by absorption Essential for the well-being of most terrestrial ecosystems They break down organic material and recycle vital nutrients Despite their diversity, Fungi share some key traits Fungi are heterotrophs , but do not ingest their food They secrete exoenzymes into their surroundings that break down complex molecules, and then absorb the remaining smaller compounds Fungi exhibit diverse lifestyles They exist as Decomposers, Parasites, or Mutualistic symbionts
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Page 3 of 28 Body Structure Body Structure The morphology of multicellular fungi enhances their ability to absorb nutrients from their surroundings Hyphae. Reproductive structures. Spore- producing structures 20 μ m Mycelium Figure 31.2
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Page 4 of 28 Many fungi consist of a Mycelium , networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption Hyphae are thin, tubular strands of cells Have a high Surface Area : Volume ratio Most fungi have cell walls made of chitin Some fungi h ave hyphae divided into cells by cross- walls, or septa , with pores allowing cell-to-cell movement of materials These are called Septate hyphae Coenocytic hyphae lack septa Nuclei Cell wall Septum Pore (a) Septate hypha (b) Coenocytic hypha Cell wall Nuclei Figure 31.3a, b
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Page 5 of 28 Some unique fungi have specialized hyphae that allow them to penetrate the tissues of their host Haustoria are hyphae that penetrate the cell walls of plants (but not the cell membrane) Mycorrhizae refers to mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots Many plants will wither or die if mycorrhizal relationship ends Ectomycorrhizal and Endomycorrhizal (b) Haustoria Nematode Hyphae 25 μ m (a) Hyphae adapted for trapping and killing prey Fungal hypha Plant cell wall Haustorium Plant cell plasma membrane Plant cell Figure 31.4a, b
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Page 6 of 28 31.2: Fungi produce spores through 31.2: Fungi produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles sexual or asexual life cycles Fungi propagate themselves by producing vast numbers of spores, either sexually or asexually The sexual life cycle involves Cell/cytoplasmic fusion, plasmogamy This forms a heterokaryotic stage (different nuclei) Nuclear fusion, karyogamy This forms a short-lived, diploid zygote that undergoes meiosis and forms haploid spores Spore germination forms a mycelium In asexual reproduction, clones result from the mitotic production of spores
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Chapter 31 - CR - Chapter 31 Fungi Page 1 of 28 31.1: Fungi...

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