Chapter 40 - CR97-03

Chapter 40 - CR97-03 - Chapter 40 Basic Principles of...

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Chapter 40 Chapter 40 Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function 1 of 18 of 18
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40.1: Physical laws and the environment 40.1: Physical laws and the environment constrain animal size and shape constrain animal size and shape Physical laws and the need to exchange materials with the environment place certain limits on the range of animal forms All animals face a similar set of problems, including how to nourish themselves The ability to perform certain actions depends on an animal’s shape and size Natural selection can fit structure, anatomy , to function, physiology by selecting over many generations 2 of 18 of 18
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Evolutionary convergence reflects different species’ independent adaptation to a similar environmental challenge Exchange with the Environment An animal’s size and shape have a direct effect on how the animal exchanges energy and materials with its surroundings A high Surface Area : Volume ratio is needed at exchange surfaces for diffusion and transport to be efficient Enough exchange surfaces must exist to maintain the animal Bigger animals need more exchange surfaces (a) Tuna (b) Shark (c) Penguin (d) Dolphin (e) Seal Figure 40.2a–e 3 of 18 of 18
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A single-celled protist living in water has a sufficient surface area of plasma membrane to service its entire volume of cytoplasm Multicellular organisms with a sac body plan h ave body walls that are only two cells thick , facilitating diffusion of materials Organisms with more complex body plans h ave highly folded internal surfaces specialized for exchanging materials Figure 40.3a Diffusion (a) Single cell Mouth Gastrovascular cavity Diffusion Diffusion (b) Two cell layers Figure 40.3b Respiratory system Circulatory system Excretory system Digestive system Figure 40.4 4 of 18 of 18
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40.2: Animal form and function are 40.2: Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization correlated at all levels of organization Animals are composed of cells Groups of cells with a common structure and function make up tissues Different tissues make up organs , which together make up organ systems In all but the simplest animals, different tissues are organized into organs Organ systems carry out higher functions Different types of tissues have different structures that are suited to their functions Tissues are classified into four main categories Epithelial , connective , muscle , and nervous 5 of 18 of 18
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Epithelial tissue Covers the outside of the body and lines organs and cavities within the body Contains cells that are closely joined Connective tissue
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Chapter 40 - CR97-03 - Chapter 40 Basic Principles of...

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