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Chapter 41 - CR97-03

Chapter 41 - CR97-03 - Chapter 41 Animal Nutrition 1 of 17...

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Chapter 41 Chapter 41 Animal Nutrition 1 of 17 of 17
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Animals fall into one of three dietary categories Herbivores eat mainly autotrophs (plants and algae) Carnivores eat other animals Omnivore eat both animals and plants or algae 4 feeding mechanisms Suspension: Bulk: Substrate: Fluid: Adequate diets must meet 3 nutritional needs Fuel for all cellular work The organic raw materials for biosynthesis Essential nutrients , the animal can’t make for itself 2 of 17 of 17
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41.1: Homeostatic mechanisms manage an 41.1: Homeostatic mechanisms manage an animal’s energy budget animal’s energy budget Nearly all of an animal’s ATP generation is based on the oxidation of energy-rich molecules: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats Glucose Regulation Animals store excess calories as glycogen in the liver and muscles and as fat Glucose is a major fuel for cells and its metabolism, regulated by hormone action, is an important example of homeostasis When fewer calories are taken in than are expended, fuel is taken out of storage and oxidized 3 of 17 of 17
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Glucose Regulation Glucose Regulation Figure 41.3 1 When blood glucose level rises, a gland called the pancreas secretes insulin , a hormone, into the blood. Insulin enhances the transport of glucose into body cells and stimulates the liver and muscle cells to store glucose as glycogen . As a result, blood glucose level drops. 2 STIMULUS: Blood glucose level rises after eating. Homeostasis: 90 mg glucose/ 100 mL blood STIMULUS: Blood glucose level drops below set point. Glucagon promotes the breakdown of glycogen in the liver and the release of glucose into the blood , increasing blood glucose level. 4 When blood glucose level drops, the pancreas secretes the hormone glucagon , which opposes the effect of insulin. 3 4 of 17 of 17
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Caloric Imbalance Caloric Imbalance Undernourishment Occurs in animals when their diets are chronically deficient in calories Can have detrimental effects on an animal Overnourishment Results from excessive food intake Leads to the storage of excess calories as fat Malnourishment Occurs when a diet has a sufficient caloric intake The diet is missing one or more essential nutrients 5 of 17 of 17
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Researchers have discovered Several of the mechanisms that help regulate body weight Over the long term, homeostatic mechanisms are feedback circuits that control the body’s storage and metabolism of fat
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