Some developed countries eg the us have ldv emission

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Unformatted text preview: 02 Oil DDW 2012 1 Light-duty vehicles are necessary for meeting climate goals – INrastructure is key Sager, writer and PhD student in the Energy and Resources Group , et al., 11 Jalel Sager, writer and PhD student in the Energy and Resources Group ( ERG) at the University of California, et al., Joshua S Apte1, Derek M Lemoine1,2and Daniel M Kammen, 11, [“Reduce growth rate of light-duty vehicle travel to meet 2050 global climate goals,” 2011 Environ. Res. Lett.,] E. Liu Transportation systems require fundamental change to meet greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and climate reduction goals for the year 2050. International agreements have advocated limiting temperature increase to 2◦C or less [1, 2], which limits the total amount of carbon that can be moved to the atmosphere [3, 4]. Under plausible assumptions and emissions pathways, year 2050 global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions levels consistent with a 2◦C temperature limit can be close to 80% below year 2007 emissions [5]. Even greater emission reductions may be sought in sectors such as electricity generation and light-duty vehicle (LDV) transportation, given both their relatively large range of mitigation options [6] and their impacts for long- and near-term climate change [7, 8]. We show that reducing LDV emissions by 80% becomes much more feasible if policies and infrastructure are put in place today that ultimately reduce demand for LDV travel. Reducing LDV emissions is often framed as a technological challenge [9, 10]. Low-carbon fuel standards aim to stimulateproductionof fuels thatproduce fewer GHGs per unit energy; vehicle efficiency policies aim to reduce the fuel used and emissions produced per distance traveled. However, by decomposing transport sector emissions into technological and behavioral drivers, we show that even significant technological advances will be insufficient to meet climate goals, unless the growth in LDV use slows or reverses. While policy options aimed to reduce the need for LDV travel typically receive far less attention than do technological measures [11], we find such demand avoidance options are likely essential to meeting mid-century GHG reduction goals [12, 13]. Emissions from LDV fleets are rapidly increasing in many emerging economies and already account for about 6% of total global CO2-eq emissions (or about 45% of the transport sector’s emissions). As much current research suggests that ‘limiting(climate change) impacts to acceptable levels by midcentury and beyond’ will likely require an 80% cut in global emissions by 2050 (relative to 1990), we set our 2050 LDV emissions targets at this level [14]. Assuming 9 billion people in 2050, these targets imply per capita annual LDV emissions of only 50–100 kg CO2-eq (see tables S3–S6 available at Thisrange, todayseen only in the world’s poorest countries, would need to be the global average while providing dramatically better services. Some developed countries (e.g., the US) have LDV emission r...
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This note was uploaded on 01/30/2013 for the course ECON 101 taught by Professor Burke during the Spring '13 term at Southern Arkansas University.

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