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terms Qala-Buto - Qala The dwelling of the Khan The...

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Qala : The dwelling of the Khan. The architecture of medieval, Iron Age and Bronze Age qala’s are stunningly similar. The continuity of this traditional architecture is remarkable. The large structures at Togolok and Gonur are likely qala’s of the ruling khan, which also housed their families/servants. These structures served as citadels for defense in times of conflict. Khan : The title given to the ruler in central asia. From the many extent lineages one lineage is singled out to provide a hereditary khan, who rules as the first among equals over all other lineage khans. V. Sarianidi : From Institute of Archaeology in Moscow, one of two archaeologists (Vadim Masson being the other) to pioneer our knowledge of the Central Asian Bronze Age. His excavations in the Dashly Oasis of N. Afghanistan and at sites of Togolok and Gonur in E. Turkmenistan give us the bulk of our understanding of the Oxus Civilization. Says nomads are a pest of little significance. E. Kuzmina : another archaologicist looking at importance of pastoral nomads. She views nomads in a much more constructive light. Altyn Depe : One of larger Bronze Age settlements in C. Asia. ~50 acres, 1/3 size of M. Daro, 1/10 size of Uruk. But shares identical technological base, with the exception of writing, though the excavator recovered some objects with incised signs paralleling Proto-Elamite Tablets. Also found two stamp seals and carved ivory sticks from Indus Civ.
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