Sourcebook: Wright, pp. 73-94
The article was essentially a general survey of the development of chiefdoms and primary
states in four major regions: Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, Mesoamerica, and the
The analysis focuses on three characteristics previously named by
Steward as important indicators: “sociopolitical control hierarchies, population changes,
and conflict, particularly conflict between polities.”
For the sake of sanity, I’ll try
to keep this brief.
“The mainstays of agriculture throughout early Mesopotamia were wheats, barleys,
sheep, goats, and cattle, along with the investment of cereal in animals and the use of
cattle as draft animals.”
i.e. they fed cattle stuff so they could work.
Below refers to SW Iran -
By 4500 BC, there were large centers of populations 1000-3000 which dominated
networks of smaller settlements.
The larger centers had large central platforms
supporting ritual buildings, segregated elite residences with large storage structures, and
indications of socially segregated cemeteries.
In the surrounding mountains, there were
no major centers, though there were clusters of smaller settlement.
During the Suse phase, Susa, a major center, dominated settlement cclusters to the
north, south, and east.
It had facilities as above – a population of 8000-12000 is
estimated for this phase.
The Early Uruk Period showcased a partial abandonment of Susa, with equally
and average-sized settlements, equally spaced.
By the end of said period, Susa grew
again and established a heavily dominant position on the Susiana Plain.