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Lecture 4 - Lecture 4 Outline 9/28 Neolithic The technology...

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Lecture 4 Outline 9/28 Neolithic The technology movement was slow Metallurgy- used copper and metal—very labor intensive- transforms to decorative devices 7500 b.c. – has symbolic meanings Indicative of economy, but more importantly ideologies 7500B.C. appearance of obsidian – they can determine which volcano it comes from - it is an early example of resource control- it gives a commanding position of this wealth (Turkey) - turquoise- status distinction Pyrotechnology -the production of limestone bowls- but no pottery (clay is everywhere, but pottery not invented until substantially earlier) the technology transfer was very slow! Limestone industry suggests a tremendous commitment of time and energy to produce it compared to producing pottery -they had to crush the limestone, mold it, fire it for two days PPNB use of fire clay- figurines, plaster placed over human skeleton -they had the technology to produce pottery but they don’t do it 3500 B.C. – geometric figures of balls, rectangles, pyramids are early communication systems- symbolic of numbers and animals - figures are functional to communicate numeracy – transported by messenger in clay ball - spread of technology and ideology - plastered skulls from PPNA Jericho - plastered skulls found on Neolithic sites in Turkey, Syria, Jordan, and Israel - A shared ideology!! - Ancestor worship?? Males, females, and children all treated in this way, but obviously not all for children- accomplishment not achieved but acquired through lineage Ancestor worship is revered- skull placed in your home- rest of the body is buried under your home 7000B.C. all 3 cultures sharing this ideology and also technology- trading obsidian At Ain Ghazal- cache of 4 plastered skulld
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“playing with minerals”- decorating area around the eye – using minerals to paint and decorate Statues- both male and female figurines- about 2 feet tall- we don’t know their function - exist on every Neolithic site at this time- females are mother goddesses associated with agriculture – fertility and fecundity is very important to them 7000B.C. Ritual (burials, material culture) household ritual, human- animal linkage, individual ritual, “public ritual” - human –social complexity that has emerged -
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