Nervous-System.pdf - Nervous System Special Senses Eye Ear Atsuzawa Flores Gualberto Nadonga Valmonte 1.sensation 2.response 3.integration 4.homeostasis

Nervous-System.pdf - Nervous System Special Senses Eye Ear...

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Unformatted text preview: Nervous System & Special Senses: Eye & Ear Atsuzawa, Flores, Gualberto, Nadonga, Valmonte 1.sensation 2.response 3.integration 4.homeostasis CENTRAL CENTRAL NERVOUS NERVOUS SYSTEM SYSTEM CENTRAL CENTRAL NERVOUS NERVOUS SYSTEM SYSTEM ● ● Part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord. Controls all voluntary movement, such as speech and walking, and involuntary movements, such as blinking and breathing. Corpus callosum FUNCTION: Ensures both sides of the brain can communicate and send signals to each other. STRUCTURE: ● ● ● ● Rostrum- continuous with the lamina terminalis and connects the orbital surfaces of the frontal lobes. Genu- connect the medial and lateral surfaces of the frontal lobes Body- forms the long central section and its fibres pass through the corona radiata to reach the surface of the hemispheres. Splenium- connect the two occipital lobes. Forebrain FUNCTION: Thinking, planning, reasoning, language processing, and interpreting and processing inputs from our senses, such as vision, touch, hearing, taste and smell. STRUCTURE: ● ● ● Thalamus-processing centre for sensory information Cerebrum-initiation of movement, coordination of movement, temperature, touch, vision, hearing, judgment, reasoning, problem solving, emotions, and learning. Hypothalamus-a link structure between the nervous and the endocrine system, its main function being to maintain the homeostasis of the body. Midbrain Midbrain FUNCTION: Management of auditory and visual sensory information via the inferior and superior colliculi, respectively. STRUCTURE: ● ● ● Cerebral Peduncle-The main function of the cerebral peduncle is to transfer motor signals from the brain down to the brainstem. Corpora quadrigemina- Reflex centres of eye movement and auditory responses. Cerebral aqueduct- A channel that connects the third ventricle with the fourth ventricle and allows cerebrospinal fluid to pass between them. hindbrain pons ● helps coordinate movement. cerebellum ● responsible for non verbal learning & memory ● balance ● muscle tone ● motor memory medulla oblongata ● automatically controls the beating of hearts, breathing of lungs etc. limbic system amygdala hippocampus ● memory and learning center of our brains ● ● memory consolidation play a central role in our emotional responses, including feelings like fear, anxiety and anger. lobes of the brain frontal lobe ● ● ● ● ● speaking planning judging abstract thinking personality aspects parietal lobe ❖ receive and process sensory information ● touch ● temperature ● pressure ● pain temporal lobe ❖ receives and processes auditory information ● comprehension ● language ● sounds occipital lobe ❖ receives and processes visual information Peripheral Nervous System ● 31 pairs of nerves branching from the spinal cord (spinal nerves) ● 12 pairs of nerves that emerge from the brain (cranial nerves) cranial nerves Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system Sensory afferent neurons Motor efferent neurons Somatic nervous system sympathetic Autonomic nervous system parasympathetic sensory (afferent) neurons motor (efferent) neurons ● receives sensory input: hearing, vision, smell, taste and touch ● transmit signal towards the CNS for the spinal cord or brain to encode the appropriate sensation. ● stimulate effectors(skin, sense organs, muscles) to perform a function. ● transmit signals away from the CNS to the organs and muscles, and put the orders into action from the brain. somatic nervous system ● voluntary responses (consciously controlled) ● controls skeletal muscles autonomic nervous system ● involuntary responses(unconsciously controlled) ● innervates our internal organs ● controls smooth, cardiac muscles and glands. ● controls vital functions >heart rate >digestion sympathetic parasympathetic responsible for the "fight or flight" response ● this is an acute response that takes place in case of an imminent harmful event or intense mental distress. ● regulate resting responses >heart rate >salivation >digestion ● Restores the body to a calm or restful state ● Promotes housekeeping functions during rest ● N E U R O N S GUALBERTO Neurons Nerve cells within the nervous system that transmit information to other nerve cells, muscle, or gland cells. Parts Of Neuron ● ● ● ● ● Cell body Dendrites Axon Myelin Sheath cells Nodes of Ranvier Cell Body ● ● ● Also known as a soma, it is the neuron’s core. Carries genetic information, maintains the neuron’s structure, and provides energy to drive activities. The cell body is the metabolic center of the cell consisting of energy producing systems and where macromolecules are synthesized to keep the cell alive, maintain its structure and allow it to function appropriately. Different Types Of Cell Bodies Depending On The Neuron ● Bipolar ● Unipolar ● Multipolar Dendrites ● Fibrous roots that branch out from the cell body. ● Receive and process signals from the axons of other neurons. Axon ● Tail-like structure which joins the cell body at a specialized junction called the axon hillock. ● Release chemical neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles located at axon terminals. ● Axon transmits electrical signals away to neurons. Myelin Sheath ● Helps axons to conduct an electrical signal. ● It insulates, protects and speeds up the transmission of electrical signal. ● Made up of Schwann cells wrapping themselves around the axon. Nodes of Ranvier ● ● The spaces/gaps between the Schwann cells, which serve to propagate electrical signals along the axon. Additionally, uncovered gaps, ion exchange takes place which allows for faster propagation. Functions of Neuron ● Receive signals ● Integrate incoming signals ● Communicate signals to target cells Types of neurons ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Sensory neurons Motor Neurons Interneurons Gray Matter Cortex Nuclei Ganglion White Matter Nerve tracts Nerves Neuroglia ● Insulate, protect and speed up transmission of impulses. Types of Neuroglia CNS ● ● ● ● Astrocytes Ependymal Cells Microglia Oligodendrocytes PNS ● ● Schwann Cells Satellite Cell upper dilated end REFERENCES ● ● ● ● ● ● Neuron. (n.d.). Retrieved September 25, 2020, from Vandergriendt, C. (2018, July 20). What Is a Neuron? Function, Parts, Structure, Types, and More. Retrieved September 25, 2020, from MBBS, S. (2020, September 21). Corpus callosum. Retrieved October 03, 2020, from The hindbrain. (2018, July 04). Retrieved October 03, 2020, from (n.d.). Retrieved October 03, 2020, from Cerebral aqueduct - definition. (n.d.). Retrieved October 03, 2020, from ...
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