Political Science Final

Political Science Final - Why should Philosophers Rule? The...

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Why should Philosophers Rule? The Allegory of the Ship What do Philosophers know? They want to understand the truth of the manner Interested in the truth in general not depend in particular examples The forms ( what constitutes to be real) Plato’s view of Authority Authority is connected to knowledge Authority is connected to a substantive purpose – justice Authority accommodates fundamental inequalities Authority is based on reason Authority is not based on power Authority is not based o n consent Machiavelli ( The Prince ) Fortuna, virtu, glory, necessity Types of Regimes- Republics and principalities 1) Republics- entails something other than a monarchy a) res public- fundamentally concerned with the common good b) civic virtue ( how can you instill the sense of sacrifice) if people are not willing to do what is best for the common good then the republic fails it is possible that in a republic things become too corrupted that a prince is necessary to instill order. 2) Principalities a) Hereditary ( you have legitimacy is you follow what your ancestors did – don’t rock the boat b) Totally or partially new
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Accustomed to liberty Previously …. By prince It’s harder to acquire legitimacy when you acquire a new land with different customs so in order to colonize you must move to that region. If you conquer a land in which they were self governed you have no choice but to destroy/ ruin them. Machiavelli is interested in the totally NEW prince because hereditary tends to survive. What must you do if you want to become a successful Prince? First look at the role of FORTUNA Machiavelli believes that fortuna can be influenced Humans beings can control their environment 1) Fortuna is like a flood (response requires prudence) So that you are not overwhelmed with the circumstances prepare yourself for bad luck ( foresight) 2) Fortuna is like a woman ( response requires being impetuous) Audacious, risk taker, violent ( attracted to young men ) * and if she doesn’t want to attract to you then you must beat her to hold her down. Virtu is a combination of both kinds of responses (prudence and impetuous) Authority Plato “An Authority” Philosopher king entails the knowledge of how to live Reality is the Forms Philosopher King ( Virtue : wisdom) they seek truth Allegory of the ship The person who should be ruling understand justice, has wisdom and knowledge. True authority is not something we should fear- it has a Warriors ( Virtue: Courage) Craftsmen ( Virtue moderation ) Questioning authority does not come up because EACH GROUPS understands their job & each minds own business *Plato believes that
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rightly You look into the individual in order to understand society as a whole substantive goal-It cannot be a function of power and might Based on higher principles ( you are born into whatever group you belong to your virtue precedes you) Not be limited ( justice is to mind your own business, no meddling with
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Political Science Final - Why should Philosophers Rule? The...

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